US History Unit 7 Study Guide

communism
an economic and political system based on one-party government and state ownership of property
capitalism
containment
the blocking of another nation’s attempts to spread it’s influence–especially effort of US to block spread of Soviet influence during the late 1940s and early 1950s
domino theory
the idea that if a nation falls under communist control, nearby nations will also fall under communist control
Eisenhower Doctrine
a US commitment to defend the Middle East against attack by any communist country, announced by Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1957
iron curtain
phrase used by Winston Churchill to describe an imaginary line that separated Communist countries in the Soviet block of Eastern Europe from countries in Western Europe
Marshall Plan
the program, proposed by Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947, under which the US supplied economic aid to European nations to help them rebuild after WWII
McCarthyism
the attacks, often unsubstantiated, by Senator Joseph McCarthy and others on people suspected of being Communists in the early 1950s
NASA
NATO
NDEA
Truman Doctrine
a US policy, announced by President Harry S. Truman in 1947, of providing economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents
United Nations
an international peacekeeping organization to which most nations in the world belong, founded in 1945 to promote world peace, security, and economic development
Warsaw Pact
a military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites
38th parallel
Berlin airlift
a 327-day operation in which US and British planes flew food and supplies into West Berlin after the Soviets blockaded the city in 1948
Cold War
the state of hostility, without direct military conflict, that developed between the US and Soviet Union after WWII
Korean War
conflict between North and South Korea, 1950-1953, in which the US, along with other UN countries, fought on the side of the South Koreans and China fought on the side of the North Koreans
North Korea
South Korea
Soviet Blockade of West Berlin
first serious crisis of Cold War, Soviets blockaded the Western Allies’ railway, road, and canal access to cut off supplies
Soviet Union
space race
competition between US and Soviet Union for supremacy in spaceflight capability
Sputnik
first satellite sent out by Soviet Union
U-2 Incident
US spy airplane shot down in Soviet airspace, during presidency of Eisenhower
Executive Order 9835
Truman signed, Loyalty Order, first general loyalty program in US, designed to root out communist influence in US gov
Executive Order 9981
Truman signed, abolished racial segregation in Armed Forces, eventually led to end of segregation in military services
Douglas MacArthur
American general, played crucial role in commanding Pacific Theatre, became commander of UN forces on outbreak of Korean War
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Supreme commander of Allied forces, President during Cold War, NASA, U-2 Incident, threatened nuclear weapons, commanded NATO, Eisenhower Doctrine
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
Accused of being communists who gave atomic bomb information to Soviet Union, sentenced to death by electrocution
Francis Gary Powers
American spy pilot shot down in Soviet airspace, U-2 Incident
Harry Truman
created NATO, President during Cold War, oversaw Berlin Airlift, “Give him hell Harry”, Truman Doctrine
Hollywood Ten
10 members of Hollywood film industry received jail sentences and were banned from working for their Hollywood studios, were thought to be supporting and spreading communism
Josef Stalin
led Soviet Union during Cold War, aimed to spread communism
Nikita Khrushchev
led Soviet Union during Cold War, instigated Cuban missile crisis
Senator Joseph McCarthy
claimed he had a list of people in the government who were communists, blacklisted many members of the government, many of these were Republicans, no proof
3 Keys to Stop Communism
supporting countries with money, diplomacy, military