US History Unit 7 Study Guide

communism
an economic and political system based on one-party government and state ownership of property

capitalism

containment
the blocking of another nation’s attempts to spread it’s influence–especially effort of US to block spread of Soviet influence during the late 1940s and early 1950s

domino theory
the idea that if a nation falls under communist control, nearby nations will also fall under communist control

Eisenhower Doctrine
a US commitment to defend the Middle East against attack by any communist country, announced by Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1957

iron curtain
phrase used by Winston Churchill to describe an imaginary line that separated Communist countries in the Soviet block of Eastern Europe from countries in Western Europe

Marshall Plan
the program, proposed by Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947, under which the US supplied economic aid to European nations to help them rebuild after WWII

McCarthyism
the attacks, often unsubstantiated, by Senator Joseph McCarthy and others on people suspected of being Communists in the early 1950s

NASA

NATO

NDEA

Truman Doctrine
a US policy, announced by President Harry S. Truman in 1947, of providing economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents

United Nations
an international peacekeeping organization to which most nations in the world belong, founded in 1945 to promote world peace, security, and economic development

Warsaw Pact
a military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites

38th parallel

Berlin airlift
a 327-day operation in which US and British planes flew food and supplies into West Berlin after the Soviets blockaded the city in 1948

Cold War
the state of hostility, without direct military conflict, that developed between the US and Soviet Union after WWII

Korean War
conflict between North and South Korea, 1950-1953, in which the US, along with other UN countries, fought on the side of the South Koreans and China fought on the side of the North Koreans

North Korea

South Korea

Soviet Blockade of West Berlin
first serious crisis of Cold War, Soviets blockaded the Western Allies’ railway, road, and canal access to cut off supplies

Soviet Union

space race
competition between US and Soviet Union for supremacy in spaceflight capability

Sputnik
first satellite sent out by Soviet Union

U-2 Incident
US spy airplane shot down in Soviet airspace, during presidency of Eisenhower

Executive Order 9835
Truman signed, Loyalty Order, first general loyalty program in US, designed to root out communist influence in US gov

Executive Order 9981
Truman signed, abolished racial segregation in Armed Forces, eventually led to end of segregation in military services

Douglas MacArthur
American general, played crucial role in commanding Pacific Theatre, became commander of UN forces on outbreak of Korean War

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Supreme commander of Allied forces, President during Cold War, NASA, U-2 Incident, threatened nuclear weapons, commanded NATO, Eisenhower Doctrine

Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
Accused of being communists who gave atomic bomb information to Soviet Union, sentenced to death by electrocution

Francis Gary Powers
American spy pilot shot down in Soviet airspace, U-2 Incident

Harry Truman
created NATO, President during Cold War, oversaw Berlin Airlift, “Give him hell Harry”, Truman Doctrine

Hollywood Ten
10 members of Hollywood film industry received jail sentences and were banned from working for their Hollywood studios, were thought to be supporting and spreading communism

Josef Stalin
led Soviet Union during Cold War, aimed to spread communism

Nikita Khrushchev
led Soviet Union during Cold War, instigated Cuban missile crisis

Senator Joseph McCarthy
claimed he had a list of people in the government who were communists, blacklisted many members of the government, many of these were Republicans, no proof

3 Keys to Stop Communism
supporting countries with money, diplomacy, military

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