US History Unit 7 Study Guide

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communism
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an economic and political system based on one-party government and state ownership of property
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capitalism
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containment
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the blocking of another nation’s attempts to spread it’s influence–especially effort of US to block spread of Soviet influence during the late 1940s and early 1950s
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domino theory
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the idea that if a nation falls under communist control, nearby nations will also fall under communist control
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Eisenhower Doctrine
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a US commitment to defend the Middle East against attack by any communist country, announced by Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1957
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iron curtain
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phrase used by Winston Churchill to describe an imaginary line that separated Communist countries in the Soviet block of Eastern Europe from countries in Western Europe
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Marshall Plan
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the program, proposed by Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947, under which the US supplied economic aid to European nations to help them rebuild after WWII
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McCarthyism
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the attacks, often unsubstantiated, by Senator Joseph McCarthy and others on people suspected of being Communists in the early 1950s
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NASA
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NATO
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NDEA
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Truman Doctrine
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a US policy, announced by President Harry S. Truman in 1947, of providing economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents
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United Nations
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an international peacekeeping organization to which most nations in the world belong, founded in 1945 to promote world peace, security, and economic development
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Warsaw Pact
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a military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites
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38th parallel
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Berlin airlift
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a 327-day operation in which US and British planes flew food and supplies into West Berlin after the Soviets blockaded the city in 1948
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Cold War
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the state of hostility, without direct military conflict, that developed between the US and Soviet Union after WWII
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Korean War
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conflict between North and South Korea, 1950-1953, in which the US, along with other UN countries, fought on the side of the South Koreans and China fought on the side of the North Koreans
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North Korea
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South Korea
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Soviet Blockade of West Berlin
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first serious crisis of Cold War, Soviets blockaded the Western Allies’ railway, road, and canal access to cut off supplies
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Soviet Union
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space race
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competition between US and Soviet Union for supremacy in spaceflight capability
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Sputnik
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first satellite sent out by Soviet Union
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U-2 Incident
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US spy airplane shot down in Soviet airspace, during presidency of Eisenhower
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Executive Order 9835
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Truman signed, Loyalty Order, first general loyalty program in US, designed to root out communist influence in US gov
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Executive Order 9981
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Truman signed, abolished racial segregation in Armed Forces, eventually led to end of segregation in military services
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Douglas MacArthur
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American general, played crucial role in commanding Pacific Theatre, became commander of UN forces on outbreak of Korean War
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Dwight D. Eisenhower
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Supreme commander of Allied forces, President during Cold War, NASA, U-2 Incident, threatened nuclear weapons, commanded NATO, Eisenhower Doctrine
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Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
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Accused of being communists who gave atomic bomb information to Soviet Union, sentenced to death by electrocution
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Francis Gary Powers
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American spy pilot shot down in Soviet airspace, U-2 Incident
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Harry Truman
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created NATO, President during Cold War, oversaw Berlin Airlift, “Give him hell Harry”, Truman Doctrine
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Hollywood Ten
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10 members of Hollywood film industry received jail sentences and were banned from working for their Hollywood studios, were thought to be supporting and spreading communism
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Josef Stalin
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led Soviet Union during Cold War, aimed to spread communism
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Nikita Khrushchev
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led Soviet Union during Cold War, instigated Cuban missile crisis
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Senator Joseph McCarthy
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claimed he had a list of people in the government who were communists, blacklisted many members of the government, many of these were Republicans, no proof
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3 Keys to Stop Communism
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supporting countries with money, diplomacy, military

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