US History – Industrialization (chapter 7)

Flashcard maker : Roy Johnson
Chinese Exclusion Act
Decreased Chinese immigration by only allowing teachers, merchants, and students into the U.S.
Row House
Single family homes that shared side walls. Often 2-3 families would share apartments.
Who supported the political machine?
New Immigrants – by casting votes for candidates endorsed by the political machine.
Tammany Hall
The name of the most powerful political machine in New York’s history, run by a political boss.
Boss Tweed
Leader of Tammany Hall, NYC’s political machine.
Angel Island
Immigrants from China and Japan arrived to the U.S. at Angel Island in SanFrancisco. (West Coast) Conditions were harsh, and new immigrants were treated like criminals at times.
Urbanization
The growth of cities
Immigrants ar Ellis Island were expected to/have:
1. Be able to work
2. Have at least $25.00
3. Be literate in their own language
4. Be physically healthy
Culture Shock
When a person experiences fear and anxiety because they don’t understand the new culture they are living in.
The first large wave of immigrants come to the U.S. from this part of the world.
Northwest Europe.
Ellis Island is located…
In New York Harbor
40% of the U.S. population can trace their roots back to this place of entry to the U.S.
Ellis Island
Culture
Your customs, belief system, and the way you live.
Ghetto
An area in a city where one ethnicity lives
Dumbbell Tenements
5-6 story buildings in cities with a shared air shaft in the middle. They were built in response to overcrowding in the cities.
Why did many farmers move to the cities?
Improved farm technology meant that not as many farmers were needed on the farms.
Graft
Political corruption involving $.
Kickback
An arrangement in which contractors padded the amount of their bill for city work and then they would split the profits with the political bosses and all those involved.
Boss Tweed
The head of the most powerful political machine in New York’s history. (stole $200 million)
WASP
White Anglo Saxon Protestant – People from Northwest European descent. Typically this immigrant group has been in positions of power in the United States.
Was the city boss the mayor?
No, but he controlled the mayor.
Extortion
Threatening violence in order to obtain money.
Fraud
Faking something involving money. (ex: forging checks)
Job of the captains and precinct workers
They would work directly with the immigrants and offer bribes, favors, and threats in exchange for votes.
Job of the ward boss
Secure all the votes for the city boss
The political machine was shaped like a …
pyramid
What were immigrants trying to escape by leaving their homeland? (4 reasons)
1. poverty
2. famine
3. land shortages
4. political & religious persecution
Define anti-Semetic
Discrimination or prejudice against the Jews.
Why did people move to the cities (4 reasons)
1. Convenient
2. Cheap
3. Social Support
4. Unskilled Jobs
List three ways that the political machine helped immigrants
1. Jobs
2. Housing
3. Citizenship
Define Political Machine
A political organization that controlled the city using bribes and threats in exchange for votes.
Pendleton Act
Did away with the spoils system/patronage and made the hiring of federal employees merit based.
The second major wave of immigrants came to the U.S. from…
Southwest Europe
Know and describe the six major problems of cities at the turn of the century
1. Fire
2. Overcrowding/Inadequate Housing
3. Poor Transportation
4. Unclean water
5. No reliable sanitation department
6. Crime
Settlement House
A community center in the slums that provided assistance and friendship to immigrants, especially women and children.
The Statue of Liberty
Located in New York Harbor
Symbol of Freedom and Welcome
Given to the U.S. by France
Nativism
A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
Americanization Movement
Education program designed to help immigrants assimilate to American culture (English, history, government…)
Jand Addams
Created the first settlement house. Chicago – Hull Hosue

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