US History Chapter 10 – Imperialism

Flashcard maker : Roy Johnson
Imperialism
A stronger country taking over a weaker country for location, trade, resources…
William McKinley
-McKinley Tariff of 1890- tariff on Hawaiian Sugar
-Supported Imperialism
-President after Grover Cleveland
-Responsible for: Spanish American War, Philippine American War, Annexation of Hawaii
Alfred T. Mahan
-Member of US Navy. Believed that to have a strong country, you needed a strong military/navy, and for this it was important to gain strategic locations.
-Wanted a strong navy to compete with other nations.
-9 steel-hulled cruisers were built
McKinley Tariff of 1890
-Put a tariff on Hawaiian sugar
-Americans living there wanted to become part of the US so they could sell sugar for less, and increase their profit again!
-Higher competition, then annexation.
Manifest Destiny
-The belief that the US was defined to spread democracy and enlightenment /edvancement to the western world/other countries… We were destined to have this land
Motivations for American Imperialism
-Military: increase military strength with strategic locations- easier to attack and defend
-New Markets: Needed places to sell- overproduction!!!
-Cultural Superiority: Social Darwinism- it is natural that one country will be the best, they should get to thrive, some are stronger, they get to dominate.
-Manifest Destiny
Territories Taken
-Hawaii
-Alaska
-Cuba
-Puerto Rico
-Philippines
-Panama (sort of)
Queen Liliuokalani
-Queen of Hawaii, overthrown by Sanford B. Dole.
-Hawaii for Hawaiians campaign- to eliminate voting restrictions so Hawaiians, not just white landowners, could vote
-Reinstated by US, but had lost power in peoples eyes
Sanford B. Dole
-Overthrew Queen Liliuokalani who wanted property/voting rights for people
-Created government after overthrowing her. Wouldn’t back down.
-Then the US took over.
The Spanish American War
-Americans upset by Maine disaster, treatment of Cubans concentration camps), also yellow journalism
-War where US supports Cuba against Spain to get its independence… also Philippines
-Treaty of Paris ends war- US gets Guam, Puerto Rico, Philippines (pays $20 million for it), Cuba
Jose Martí
-Cuban Rebel Leader
-Provoked US and attacked American business interests, wanted us to help with the revolution against Spain
Valeriano Weyler
-Spanish General
-Puts Cubans in concentration camps in response to revolution
The U.S.S. Maine
-US ship coming to take Americans out of Cuba
-Explodes in the harbor of Havana, Cuba. Yellow journalism makes people think Spain did it.
-Large factor in the war!
William Randolph Hearst
-Leading newspaper man, ran the New York Journal
-Yellow Journalism- You furnish the pictures… and I’ll furnish the war
Yellow Journalism
-Exaggerating stories to get a certain response or reaction from people, and to get more customers!!!
The deLome Letter
-Letter from Spanish diplomat, Enrique Dupuy deLome, to Spain.
-Letter insulted US president.
-Was intercepted, US got it. Another reason for the war.
George Dewey
-Commodore who took Manila, the Philippine capital.
-This allows US troops to land there
Teller Amendment
-Congress allows US to go to war, as long as we don’t just take Spain’s place afterwards
Rough Riders
-Volunteer cavalry unit during the Spanish American War
-Lead by Theodore Roosevelt and Leonard Wood.
-San Jaun Hill- they got much fame from here, even if they didn’t do much…
San Juan Hill
-Strategically important hill, Rough Riders vs. Spaniards
-Helped with Roosevelt’s fame
Theodore Roosevelt
-Commander of Rough Riders
-Becomes president
-Roosevelt Corollary (we have the right to intervene…)
Treaty of Paris
-Ceasefire between US and Spain
-Spain frees Cubans, gives US Guam, Puerto Rico, sells Philippines for $20 million
Foraker Act
-This set up a civil government in Puerto Rico
-President of the US appointed a governor, Puerto Rico could only elect members of the lower house. (governor elects upper house?)
-Puerto Rico doesn’t pay taxes, not considered a state.
Platt Amendment
-Insisted that Cuba add things to their constitution
-US has the right to intervene, buy Cuban land for military, Cuba can’t go into debt, and Cuba has to stay independent.
Protectorate
-A country whose affairs are partially controlled by another power (like Cuba)
Annexation of the Philippines (justification)
-Cultural superiority, otherwise others will take it, it would make us look weak if we don’t, they can’t start their own government…
-3 Year war for Philippine independence- Philippines lose 20,000 people, US loses 4,000 people and $400 mil.
-US used tactics like the designated zones (just like Spain had)
Emilio Aguinaldo
-Philippine rebel leader, thought US had promised independence!
-Lead resistance to the US
John Hay
-Secretary of State who issued the Open Door Policy- writes Open Door Notes
The Open Door Policy
-John Hay writes the Open Door Notes
-Policy that all countries would get equal trading privileges in China- If not- then you threaten the survival of US because we depend on exports…
-2nd Open Door Policy- said US was committed to preserving China’s integrity, and that they would safeguard equal/impartial trade in all of China.
Anti-Imperialism
-Grover Cleveland, Andrew Carnegie, Jane Addams, Mark Twain
-Reasons like racism, morally wrong, corrupted democratic beliefs (hypocritical)
The Roosevelt Corollary
-Saying to other countries, Don’t interfere with countries! We will come down and intervene! If you do as we say, we have no problems.
The Panama Canal
-US paid $40 million for it from France
-US ships intimidate Columbia into giving Panama independence (they wouldn’t let us do it before, Columbia was in control of Panama)
-Canal through Panama- reduced travel time, however many died
Woodrow Wilson
-Missionary Diplomacy
-Was US president
Missionary Diplomacy
-US has moral responsibility (to its people?) to not recognize Latin American country that was not friendly to American interests
Dollar Diplomacy
-Using money to get what you want
-Nicaragua- helped with debts, then fought to keep a government there that was friendly to US

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