Urinary System Homework

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Which of the following structures is most likely to be located in the renal medulla?
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loop of Henle
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Which of the following is NOT a function of the kidney?
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production of albumin
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Which of the following describes the correct flow of blood in the kidney?
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afferent arteriole to the glomerular capillaries to the efferent arteriole
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Which of the following describes the flow of filtrate in the kidney?
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Bowman’s capsule to the proximal convoluted tubule to the loop of Henle
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Which of the following describes the normal flow of urine?
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collecting duct to the renal pelvis to the ureter to the bladder
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Which statement about the bladder is TRUE?
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Three openings from the urinary bladder form the trigone.
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Normally, which of the following is reabsorbed completely from the filtrate?
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glucose
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Which substance directly controls the reabsorption of water from the collecting ducts?
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antidiuretic hormone
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Under what circumstances do cells in the kidneys secrete renin?
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Blood flow in the afferent arteriole decreases.
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Which of the following should be present in the filtrate in the proximal convoluted tubule?
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sodium and potassium ions
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Which of the following functions would be impaired when tubular epithelial cells have been damaged?
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adjusting the specific gravity of the urine
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When a respiratory infection with high fever is present in the body, how would the kidney tubules maintain normal pH of body fluids?
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Secrete more acids and reabsorb more bicarbonate ions.
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When comparing normal kidney function with dialysis, which of the following mechanisms is not possible in dialysis?
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active transport
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Which disease is manifested by dysuria and pyuria?
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cystitis
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In a case of acute pyelonephritis, what is the cause of flank pain?
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inflammation, stretching the renal capsule
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Which pathophysiologic process applies to acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis?
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immune complexes deposit in glomerular tissue, causing inflammation
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What causes the dark urine associated with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis?
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increased glomerular permeability resulting in gross hematuria
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Renal disease frequently causes hypertension because:
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congestion and ischemia stimulates release of renin
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Urinary casts are present with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis because of:
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inflamed tubules mold RBCs and protein into a typical mass
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Which disease would cause an increased ASO titer and elevated serum ASK?
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acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
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What is the first indicator in the arterial blood gases of acidosis caused by kidney disease?
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increased carbonic acid, increased bicarbonate ion, pH less than 7.35, decreased bicarbonate ion. A, b, c, d. all of the above.
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What would be the long-term effects of chronic infection or inflammation of the kidneys?
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gradual necrosis, fibrosis, and development of uremia
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What factors contribute to headache, anorexia, and lethargy with kidney disease?
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increased blood pressure, elevated serum urea, anemia, acidosis. 1, 2, 3, 4. All of the above.
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What are the significant signs of nephrotic syndrome?
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hyperlipidemia and lipiduria
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Why does blood pressure often remain near normal in patients with nephrotic syndrome?
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Hypoproteinemia results in significant fluid shift to the interstitial compartment.
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Common causes of urolithiasis include all of the following EXCEPT:
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hyperlipidemia
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What does hydronephrosis lead to?
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ischemia and fibrosis in the compressed area
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Which of the following is a predisposing factor to bladder cancer?
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exposure to chemicals and cigarette smoke
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Which of the following relates to polycystic kidney disease?
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It results in gradual degeneration and chronic renal failure.
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Which of the following is related to Wilms’ tumor?
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a genetic defect
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Which of the following indicates the early stage of acute renal failure?
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very low GFR and increased serum urea
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What is a cause of acute tubule necrosis and acute renal failure?
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prolonged circulatory shock, sudden significant exposure to nephrotoxins, crush injuries or burns. All of the above.
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Which of the following would likely cause chronic renal failure?
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persistent bilateral glomerulonephritis
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What is the primary reason for hypocalcemia developing during end-stage renal failure or uremia?
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a deficit of activated vitamin D and hyperphosphatemia
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Cystitis is more common in females due to:
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the urethra is short, wide, and adjacent to areas with resident flora
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Which of the following is NOT likely to lead to hydronephrosis?
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nephrosclerosis
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Which of the following congenital defects is a common cause of cystitis in young children?
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vesicoureteral reflux
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Which factor contributes to severe anemia in individuals with chronic renal failure?
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limited protein intake
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What is the primary action of the diuretic furosemide?
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decreased reabsorption of sodium and water
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Uremic signs of renal failure include all of the following EXCEPT:
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congestive heart failure
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Choose the basic cause of osteodystrophy associated with chronic renal failure.
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failure of the kidney to activate vitamin D
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Agenesis is often not diagnosed because:
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one kidney provides more than adequate function
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Wilms’ tumor is:
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an encapsulated mass in one kidney
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The micturition reflex is initiated by:
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increased pressure distending the bladder
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Which of the following results from decreased blood flow into the kidneys?
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increased angiotensin and systemic vasoconstriction
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In acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, the glomerular inflammation results from:
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type III hypersensitivity reaction
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In acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, the inflammation causes:
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increased permeability of the glomerular capillaries, glomerular congestion and decreased GFR. A and B.
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Circulatory shock causes:
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decreased GFR and increased renin secretion
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Autoregulation in the kidneys refers to:
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local minor reflex adjustments in the arterioles to maintain normal blood flow
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The reabsorption of water and electrolytes by the kidneys is directly controlled by:
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atrial natriuretic hormone, antidiuretic hormone. C, 1 and 2.

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