unit one test (comprehensive)

Metaphysics
(the branch of philosophy that treats of first principles, includes) ontology and cosmology, (and is intimately connected with epistemology.)

Natural theology
(theology based on knowledge of the) natural world and human reason, (apart from revelation.)

Philosophy of the person
(Philosophy dealing with the) conception of self

Epistemology
(a branch of philosophy that investigates) the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge.

Philosophy of nature
the study of nature and the physical universe (that was dominant before the development of modern science)

Aesthetics
(a branch of philosophy dealing with the) nature of beauty, art, and taste, (and with the creation and appreciation of beauty)

Heraclitus
535-475 BCE
(“you can’t step in the same river twice.”
An ungovernable logos governs change- “the logos is always so”)

Parmenides
515-440 BCE
(rival to Heraclitus, thought you could step in the same river twice)

Sophists
Thought about how the human being related to reality and what their place was in it

Protagoras
“homo mensura”: Man is the measure
Mankind determines his own reality

Thrasymachus
“might makes right”
Its all about power
The more powerful you are the more able you are to determine your own reality

Ethics
A branch of Philosophy that deals with moral dilemmas and tries to understand if there is a Good or universal moral theory

Political Philosophy
For Aristotle ethics and politics were innately connected because if there is to be a just state then it must work on ethical grounds (focused on the needs of the many)

Aretέ
virtue or excellence

moral/intellectual
two types of Aristotle virtue

pure reason-The Forms (knowledge-the intelligible world) (the Good)
Divided line (top)

Understanding-scientific concepts (knowledge-the intelligible world) (the Good)
Divided line (second to the top)

Belief-individual objects (opinion-the visible world) (the Sun)
Divided line (second to the bottom)

Conjecture-images (opinion-the visible world) (the Sun)
Divided line (bottom)

material,efficient,formal,final
Aristotle’s Four Causes (list them)

Plato on the soul v. Aristotle on the Soul
Plato: Truth is gleamed from the soul because the soul is born with the Truth, the soul is immortal, Had beheld the Forms prior to embodiment, Birth is so traumatic that the soul forgets its immediate knowledge of the Forms
Aristotle: Called the soul the Form of the Human body, implying that the soul is mortal just as the body is (140)

Aristotle’s Four Causes
Material: The “stuff” out of which something is made- a marble statue is made out of a block of marble
Formal: The essence or end of something, what it strives to be, (exists in potential and idea)
Efficient: The force that brings about change in something
Final: The ultimate purpose of something- (a marble statue to beautify the Parthenon) (the actualization of it)

Change and Similarity in Plato and Aristotle and its relationship to the theory of the Forms
Plato: believed in the Forms, a sphere of the ultimate Form of everything, what objects in common all have in common, we all have a prior knowledge of the Forms but cannot truly know them in this existence, the trauma of birth wiped our memory of them
Aristotle: did not believe the Forms could be separate from an entity because that would be contradictory of an object’s being, believed instead that everything had a Telos (potential) or ultimate end that it strives towards once we meet our telos this is our actualization, for human beings this is happiness because we all strive for it and it is not a means towards anything

Aristotle’s account of Act / Potency and Form / Matter
Forms and Matter are not separate but the Forms are embedded within said object. Any object, by definition must have both Form and matter and the Forms cannot be separate. When you say what something is (tree, book, car) you are naming its Form. The Form is a thing’s essence and is related to its function.
Act/Potency: A famous example of this is an acorn, an acorn has the potential to become an oak tree. Once it actualizes itself it becomes an oak tree and the oak tree is the actualization of that prior acorn. (Potential to become something), (Its actualization or end/telos)

Aristotle’s account of the Prime Mover
The cause of the universe
What pushes everything to strive towards their individual telos
Everything moves towards it
It is pure thought and activity having no potential because it is perfection
It thinks only about perfection (itself)
Nonanthropomorphic

The various branches of Philosophy
Speculative Philosophy:
Metaphysics
the branch of philosophy that treats of first principles, includes ontology and cosmology, and is intimately connected with epistemology.
Natural theology
theology based on knowledge of the natural world and on human reason, apart from revelation.
Philosophy of the person
Philosophy dealing with the conception of self
Epistemology
a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge.
Philosophy of nature
the study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science
Aesthetics
a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty, art, and taste, and with the creation and appreciation of beauty
Practical Philosophy:
Ethics
A branch of Philosophy that deals with moral dilemmas and tries to understand if there is a Good or universal moral theory
Political Philosophy:
For Aristotle ethics and politics were innately connected because if there is to be a just state then it must work on ethical grounds (focused on the needs of the many)

Plato’s Theory of the Divided Line and the Allegory of the Cave
(Draw)-See paper for divided line
Allegory of the Cave:
People are chained to a wall in a cave facing a wall, behind them is an exit with a fire in front of the exit, the fire casts shadows/images on the wall in front of them and this is what they know to be reality (conjecture), they then make opinions on these images (Belief), if they can ever escape their imprisonment then they will be able to see the exit and start to develop concepts related to their actual reality (Understanding), then once they leave the cave they will be able to experience true reality or the Forms of what create the shadows previously conceived (Pure Reason)

Aristotle’s discussion of virtue
Aretέ- virtue or excellence
Two types: Intellectual and Moral; Intellectual virtue is acquired through inheritance and education while Moral Virtue is formed by habit, practice, and imitation. Moral virtue results from a life of moderation.
Philosophical wisdom is therefore forged from intellectual virtue while practical wisdom is partly due to both

Various Pre-Socratic philosophers (Parmenides, Heraclitus, and the Sophists)
Paramenides: Developed a circular logic stating that anything that exists must come from something else that previously existed and therefor is constant, based on this, he theorized that one could step in the same river twice
Heraclitus: Believed that everything was in a state of constant flux so therefore you could not step in the same river twice
Sophists: were concerned with man’s place and significance in reality, Protagoras and Thrasymachus are historical sophists who believed that man was his own measure of reality and therefore could come institute conclusions based on his influence and personal significance, the most powerful man is the accurate one