Unit 7 Review Guide Vocab

20th amendment
This amendment was crucial to the organization and tradition of the presidency influencing the start date form march 4th to January 20th
22nd amendment
This amendment made a big impact in government sealed the deal for presidents to only serve 2 terms and this weakend the presidency
25th amendment
This amendment gives detailed rules for the Vice President if the president resigns, dies, or can no longer operate in office and gives certain significant power to congress in impeachment with a 2/3rds vote
Accountability in respect to the bureaucracy is very very important because recently it is important to be accountable because it is then less difficult to solve the abuse of power problem in private bureaucracies there recently has been a major problem with little accountability in all levels of the bureaucracy
Agency capture
In many instances agencies reach explicit agreements about dividing up the policy turf to avoid complication and duplication and to ensure supportive constituencies they do not want anyone else to do what they do
These people are appointed by the president to be a great and respectful representative off he United States and influences and determines our status with other foreign nations, often highs up officials close to the president are put in this role
This can be pardoned by the president under his number one role as chief executive or administrator and is important because it give the president power of a singular man to make such large decisions
Bull pulpit
This is an act of taking the presidents power and helping to persuade through speeches an example of this is Obama rhetoric in coming out about gay marriage rights
The is massive organization of civil servants are organized and put together with rules. Hierarchy, specialization of skills, and good merit and has been accumulating lots of power in recent time
This is a language some believe is unable to be understood if you don’t work with the bureaucracy that uses special key words and manipulation for less accountably and following certain rules, linguistic short cuts
Bureaucratic culture
There are 4 main elements of bureaucratic culture: policy commitment, adaption of bureaucratic behavior, specialization and expertise, and identification with the agency, all of these strengthen a bureaucracies tie to its agency making the size and scope of the bureaucracy larger and more powerful
Bureaucratic discretion
The bureaucracy as rule maker has essentially receives delegated legislative power form congress and uses there own judgement to interpret and carry out laws, this leads to more unelected bureaucrats making big decisions
Cabinet (departments)
The cabinet of the president advises the president but focuses on special skills and necessary issues, the departments have grown since the founding from 4departments to 15departments
Chief administrator (executive)
This role gives the president ability to appoint, the constitution states this and he is a vital part of the bureacracy appointments and department appointments because who he picks can make a huge difference in what gets done while he’s in office
Chief diplomat
Is a pivotal part of our foriegn relations the president must use his role to better our treaties with other nations and to not wage war
Chief of staff
This is the presidents most powerful right hand man and influences access and media to the president which can influence what the public knows and does not know
Citizen advisory councils
These attempt to make bureaucracy more responsive to the people but typically people are biased toward policy
Civil service
Civil servants are bureaucrats, serve the society in which we live, responsive to rigid rules creating little accountability the civil service system has been altered a lot since the founding
Clientele groups
Responding to the demands of clientele groups is one of the 3 categories of federal agencies and this included these departments are sensitive to the concerns of those specific groups rather than being focused on what is good for the nation as a whole, clientele groups also have a large influence because of their size as they include interest groups, groups of citizens, and industry members, along with the poor
Commander in cheif
This role of the presidency causes disagreements between congress and the president of sending troops into war and declaring war, made even more complicated with the passing of the “war powers act”
Congressional oversight
Congressional oversight through congressional Committees and subcommittees and it’s ability to change laws and monitor agencies
Council of economic advisers
This CEA is a par of a collegial. Of organizations that form the presidents own bureaucracy y and helps to plan economy and the future decisions helping to guide the president in the right direction economically
Cycle effect
This is one of the three factors that effect the popularity of the president and will map the patterns for how the ratings of the presidency with fall and drop for example the honeymoon period
Discretionary authority
since this gives bureaucrats the ability to let lower officials make more diceisions it lowers accountability in many agencies for example the EPA
Divided government
The presidency issuable worse when there is a divided government leading to gridlock and lower presidential ratings
Economic leader
As economic leader the presidents rTing are very influenced because people usually base there opinions of the presidents of the state of the economy and the president must prepare the federal budget, countries finances and deal with rising prices and high taxes effectively
Electoral college
The electoral college is a key part of the executive branch as an important connection between it and further elections and appointments in the bureaucracy
Executive agreement
The president uses these agreements to go around congress but congress can still try to prevent them by cutting the funds for them, the president has had 10,620 executive agreements and most are for foriegn nations relations.
Executive office of the president
This includes the different organization with an impact of foriegn policy budget and economic planning including the national security council, the office of management and budget and the council of economic advisors
Executive privilege
This is not a constitutional right rather it’s based on two grounds like the separation of powers preventing branches form sharing internal workings and privacy is needed for advice form advisors without political pressure, seen in court case U.S. V Nixon
Federal register
The federal register has over 7000 pages and can be edited and has evidence used in agency disputes pertaining to agency business, research days, financial records, and so forth
Freedom of information act
This sets ups procedures so that it enforces information can be corrected and ensures the confidentiality of social security, tax and related records, but few of us ever use the FOIA
Going public
As a key strategy for he presidents power of persuasion it is important to agenda setting and getting along with the public for the president and efforts can include trips to town meetings and debates
Government corporation
Public enterprises=big business, a good example of this is the federal deposit insurance corporation, it is a “government guarantee”
Hatch act
While this act limits involvement, it protects civil servants form political pressure it has softened over the decades and runs in with first amendment issues
Head of government
As a role of the president who decides who gets scarce resources this role collides with others to create this double expectations gap eventually weaking the presidency
Head of state
As one of the presidents many roles of the president it collides with the role of head of government and causes this double expectations gap as the political figure head part of the presidency
Honeymoon period
This part of the cycle effect can effect how much people trust the president but doesn’t give an accurate perception of how welt eh president will do when passing legislation that we find out in the post honeymoon period
Involves a 2 step process to check each side as a majority vote is important, the house impeached and the senate tries the president, impeachment then influences the executive branch and cabinets because of the presidential succession act
Impoundment of funds
The constitution is silent on this issue of president refusing to spend such money, using such immense power, congress responded to this by passing the budget reform act of 1974
Independent agency
As the president appoints the head of these independent agencies giving leeway to the executive branch, they vary in size, and it’s means if jurisdiction tend to be narrower than those of the cabinet departments
Independent regulatory boards & commissions
As for regulating businesses, industries, or economic sectors these regulatory Angeles are supposed to be independent but fail a lot in that respect
Inherent powers
During the era of the traditional presidency the president had direct rules and new the explicit power of the founders but now with new changing issues in the modern presidency they rely on inherent powers or those not explicitly stated in the constitution
Iron triangle
The sympathy triangle, the 3parts of this include 1. The representatives of an outside lobby 2. Middle level bureaucrats 3. Selected members of congress, creating mutually beneficial policy, most influence over the bureaucracy is exercised by congress
Issue network
With so many system of relationships it makes it hard to hold people accountable in the bureaucracy, issue networks complicate this more
Lame duck
This idea of not caring during the end of the presidency makes congress(and the public) less responsive to the demands of the president
Legislative leader
As legislative leader the president can persuade, suggest, command, use the important power of presidential veto, he can be a coalition builder and outline goals through the state of the union address to help make him look better in the executive branch if the legislative branch is doing well
Legislative liaison
These personnel are key to the empower of persuasion part of the presidency and connect the legislative branch in this effect
Line-item veto
These are favored by conservatives and Bill Clinton but are unconstitutional but can create too much legislative power than wanted by the president
National security council
This part of the executive office of the president helps give advice to the president and greatly effects foreign policy and efficiency
Neutral competence
This idea if held my many who believe that the bureaucracy has more powers than the founders would have intended and that it should be depoliticized by making it more professional
Office of management and budget
As a close advisor the president the executive branch is very influenced by the office of management and budget because with out its advise to the president the budget would be unmanageable and it is the largest office of the executive office of the president
Pardoning power
This is said to upset other branches because it gives the president the power to single handedly remove someone from a Crime and could lead to corruption
Party leader
In this role the president shows his/her support for a political party’s and uses their influence to help the party through supporting party goals and raising money for and helping the campaign for their party members
This system effects the bureaucracy and provides jobs to pay off political debts and gains cooperation from officials but most of all it strengthens the base of power
Pendleton act
This was the first reform of civil service and is also known as the civil service reform act of 1883 basing reward in the bureaucracy changing it forever by basing it off of merit rather than patronage
Pocket veto
This type of probably gives the vaguest idea of what the president thinks of a bill because he just doesn’t looks tut if it’s not important or life hanging or effective or helpful
Power to persuade
This power of the president impacts the legislative branch mainly and is very important for setting the agenda of the president and utilizes his lobbying powers
Presidential style
The presidents presidential style sets a tone for the rest of his time in office and it is a subtle means in which the president communicates it’s can be an opportunity for enhancing public support and the presidents ability to deal effectively with congress and the media
Presidential veto
The presidential veto can have many after affects he can show his uninterested opinion when he doesn’t even look at the bill, send opinion when he vetos and it is a major check on the government
Press secretary
As a close advisor to the president loyalty is key and part of the White House staff the press secretary is in charge of the media and how much they get to see of the president and how much we as the public get to hear from the president
Privacy act of 1974
The fact that people get to see the information the government has is very important falling under the zone of privacy and acts as a check on the government to make sure it is not hiding information from us
Red tape
This is one of the criticism of the bureaucracy and many believe the maze of rules and regulations stifle efficiency and also makes it harder to hold people accountable
Regulations are a big part of agencies and rule the ideas and accountability of them
This can be pardon by the president under his power of the presidency and role as chief executive and shows and exercises his singular power
Senatorial courtesy
This is said to be the bridge between the executive and judiciary and it’s is a way for he president to influence court decisions through having judicial department invest in
Resources in arguing the case
Signing statements
presidents Bush and Reagan were very well known for issuing many signing statements, this presidential power is used most often for his role as legislative leade rgiving congress a written explinantion of what he thinks of the bill
Solicitor general
As solicitor general the president can influence a court decisions and shows his immense power within having the department of justice invest in resources in arguing a case
Spoils system
This began with Andrew Jackson and uses old ideals tore ward political supporters with public office but it is inefficient and incompetent
State of the union address
This speech by the president is one of his main roles as legislative leader and helps address all issues for the year to congress and using his power of persuasion on the government officials and public in his rhetoric and ideals
Within the presidency will influence the leadership if the president is unable to be in power and influences appointments by the president because if the president is gone then these appointments in a certain order
Sunshine laws
Even effects committees and subcommittees unless on a special occasion of security
As his role as chief diplomat, the president has to organize treaties, The treaties of the United States need 2/3rds vote by congress to approve funds to put them into action
Unified government
When a government is unified it is usually a lot more effective and faster at getting things done like legislation passed
War powers resolution of 1973
This act weakened the office and made more ways for the president to get around congress,ever since this was passed congress has differed with the president on what this really means
Whistle blowers
Whistle blowers are a check Ont he government in their own way and have recently begun to be protected throughout he whistles blower protection act but hasn’t been as successful as wanted even though it set up its own independent agency for whistle blower protection
White House Office
These employees who work closely with the president run his daily life and are crucial and help with policy making and coordination, out reach and communications and internal coordination
Executive order
Executive orders spike when there is national crisis and are higher at the beginning of the presidency an example of an executive order is affirmative action

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