Flashcards on Drivers Ed

Flashcard maker : Deacon Kirby
Low-risk driving:
Constantly monitoring other vehicles and roadway users around you, and you will not assume others will do what you think they should do.
RIsks:
The chance of injuring people or causing property damage.
Highway Transportatio System: (HTS)
Three parts- roadway users, vehicles, and roadways. Purpose of the HTS is to move people and cargo from one place to another in a safe and efficient manner.
Roadway users:
People who use the HTS by walking, driving, or riding.
IPDE Process:
An organized system for seeing, thinking, and responing during the driving task. IPDE is an acronym for identify, predict, decide, and execute.
I:
Identify important information in the current driving situation.
P:
Predict when and where possible points of conflict may develop.
D:
Decide when. where, and how to communicate, adjust speed, and/or change position to avoid conflict.
E:
Execute the correct action(s) to prevent conflict.
Zone Control System:
A method for managing space around your car. Understanding Zone Control will help you apply the IPDE Process.
Collision:
A collision or crash happens when a vehicle hits another object, whether the object is moving or not. By law, any driver involved in a collision must stop.
Operating Costs:
Costs for fuel, oil, and tires.
Fixed Costs:
Include the purchase of your car, any licensing fees, and insurance. These are called FC because they are not determined by how many miles you drive.
Graduated Driver Licensing Program:
GDL program requires young drivers to progress through a series of licensing stages. Typically these programs have three stages: learner’s permit stage, intermediate license stage, and the full-privilege stage.
Learner’s Permit Stage:
Supervised conditions require that
– the learner receives a permit to drive when supervised by an adult, licensed driver
– the permit must be held for a minimum period – usually six months – of violation-free and collision-free driving
– other licensed drivers, such as family members, may be asked to provide a minimum number of hours of practive driving
Intermediate License Stage:
The learner drives under the following restrictions at this stage:
– The learner must have successfully completed the learner’s permit stage and an approved driver-education course.
– Supervised driving may be continued to meet the required hours.
– Night driving is restricted.
– Passengers can be limited in age and/or number.
– The intermediate license must be held at least six months of collision-free and violation-free driving. If the learner is involved in a collision or receives a violation, the intermediate license stage begins again from the time of the violation or collision.
– Penalties for violations are increased. Many times, violators are required to go to traffic school.
Full-Privilege License Stage:
To graduate to a full, unrestricted license stage, the learner must
– successfully complete the intermediate license stage with no violations and no collisions
– in some states, complete an advanced driver-education course
The National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act requires
auto makers to install safety features in all cars.
Regulatory signs:
Signs that set limits or give commands. They control traffic and they tell you about a law that is important at that place and, of course, that you must obey.
Warning Sign:
A WS alerts you to hazards or changes in the conditions of the road ahead. Most warning signs are diamond-shaped. Be prepared to slow or stop when you see a warning sign.
Guide Signs:
GS provide a variety of information. They mark routes, intersections, service areas, and other points of interest or information.
International Signs:
IS convey information by symbols rather than words. Drivers who travel from country to country can understand the meaning of these signs without learning several languages. The US has adopted several international symbols for use on highway signs. More and more of these symbols will be used as international travel increases.
Traffic Signal:
Traffic lights, arrows, flashing signals, and pedestrian signals are used to help traffic flow smoothly. These are all TS.
Right-Turn-On-Red:
At most intersections, drivers are allowed to make a RTOR. This means turning right after stopping when the signal is red. However, some cities restrict such turns.
Left-Turn-On-Red:
Some states permit drivers to make a left turn after stopping at a red light when turning from aa one-way street. A few states permit left turns after stopping at a red light from a left-turn lane into a one-way street. Be sure state laws and local ordinances permit such turns. The intersection and crosswalk must be clear of traffic and pedestrians before you turn either left or right on a red light.
Flashing Signal:
A FS alerts you to dangerous conditions or tells you to stop.
Lane Signal:
Each light is a LS. These signals are different from the arrows that regulate turns.
Pedestrian Signals:
PS are used to ensure the safety of people who are walking. At busy intersections, there may be PS mounted near traffic lights.
Roadway Marking:
A RM gives you a warning or direction. RM are usually lines, words, or symbols painted on the roadway. Some RM are painted on curbs or other surfaces. As with signs and signals, the colors of roadway markings have specific meanings.
Shared Left-Turn Lane:
On busy streets, a SLTL can help drivers turn left into businesses in the middle of a block. Drivers traveling in either direction may use these lines. Solid and broken yellow lines with white left-turn arrows in either direction identify a SLTL.
HOV Lanes:
High-Occupancy Lanes, or HOV Lanes are reserved for use of buses and carpools with at least two or three passengers. These lanes are identified with solid yellow or white lines and a diamond. If you travel in these lanes without the minimum number of passengers, you may receive a large fine.
Rumble Strips:
RS are short sections of grooved or corrugated roadway. When you drive over these strips, they cause your car to vibrate and make a loud noise. RS may be used to warn you of an unexpected need to reduce speed or stop, or to warn you that you are driving too close to the edge of the road.
Speed Bumps:
SB are in areas such as parking lots and very narrow streets sometime and they are raised portions. You shoul not dirve faster than 5 mph over SB. Driving faster my damage your car.
Shift Lever:
The SL is used to select a gear. The SL is most commonly located on the steering column or on the console. The concolse is the compartment mounted between the front seats.
Cruise Control:
The CC device lets you maintain your desired speed without keeping your foot on the accelerator.
Shift Indicator:
The SI shows the gear positions of an automatic transmission. This indicator may be located on the steering column, on the instrument panel, or on the console to the right of the driver. Common positions on the shift indicator are P, R, N, D, 2, and 1.
Mirror’s Blind Spot:
The areas around the vehicle that the driver cannot see.
Tachometer:
Some vehicles have a tachometer that indicates the engine revolutions per minute (RPM). Engine damage may occur if the RPM’s rise too high while the vehicle is being driven. This is indicated by a red zone on the gauge.
Odometer:
It indicates the total number of miles the vehicle has been driven. Some vehicles have an additional trip odometer that can be set back to zero to measure the number of miles driven during a certain period of time.
Antilock Breaking System Light:
This light tells you if the ABS is functioning properly. ABS keeps the wheels from locking if the driver brakes hard. If the ABS light comes on while driving, it indicates a problem with the system.
Key Fob:
AKA a held remote control, you can lock or unlock the vehicle’s doors from a distance (most new cars today have this as their key).
Before Opening the Door: (6 Steps)
1. Have your keys in hand.
2. Look under the vehicle.
3. Look at and around the vehicle.
4. Glance at the tires.
5. Check the windshield, windows, headlights, and taillights.
6. Look inside the vehicle.
Get Into The Car: (6 Steps)
1. Watch the traffic.
2. Lock all doors.
3. Adjust your head restraint.
4. Adjust your seat.
5. Check and adjust all mirrors.
6. Make sure passengers buckle up.
Starting the Engine: (6 steps)
1. Set the parking brake.
2. The shift lever should be in park.
3. Place your right foot on the brake pedal.
4. Insert the key and turn the ignition switch to ON.
5. Check the gauges, warning lights, and fuel supply.
6. Turn on the headlights if they don’t come on automatically after starting the car.
Target:
Using a target helps you steer the vehicle with pinpoint accuracy. A target is a fixed object far out in the distance that appears to be in the center of path you intend to drive. A target serves as an aiming point for where you want your vehicle to go. Using targets will give you the ability to steer your vehicle accurately. To steer the vehicle, turn the steering wheel so that the center of it is aligned with the target.
Putting The Vehicle In Motion: (5 steps)
1. Put your right foot on the brake.
2. Shift into DRIVE.
3. Keep your foot on the brake pedal.
4. Check your path of travel.
5. Make blind-spot area checks.
Breaking Point:
The point at which the brakes begin to work and slow the vehicle.
Wheel Lock-Up:
WLU occurs in a vehicle without ABS when the brakes are applied with such force that the wheels stop turning and the tires begin to slide on the pavement.
Exiting The Vehicle: (11 Steps)
1. Keep your foot on the brake until the shift selector is in PARK and the parking brake is set.
2. Set the parking brake to secure the vehicle.
3. Shift to PARK.
4. Take your foot off the brake.
5. Turn off the headlights and accessories to prevent unnecessary drain on the battery.
6. Take off your safety belt.
7. Close the windows before turning off the ignition.
8. Turn the ignition off and remove the key.
9. Check for traffic to be certain that it is safe fro you to open the door.
10. Open the door as little as necessary and close it as soon as possible.
11. Lock the doors after you are certain that you have the keys. Walk to the rear of the vehicle, so that you can face traffic to detect any problems.
Transmission:
The purpose of it is to convert engine speed into power to turn the wheels of a vehicle.
Clutch:
The purpose of it is to connect the rotating engine shaft to the gears in the transmission. This connection is made with clutch plates held together by friction. When the clutch pedal is pressed down, the engine gets separated from the transmission. After the gear selection is made, the pressure on the clutch pedal is removed and the engine and transmission apply power to the vehicle’s wheels.
Semi-Automatic Transmissions:
Many auto manufacturers are prdoucing SAT also known as a “clutchless manuel transmission.” The clutch is replaced with electronics that allow the driver to shift gears manually by merely moving the shift lever.
Convex Mirrors:
A CM is the best way to eliminate blind spots. They are attached to each outside mirrors. The surface of a CM is curved outward like the exterior of a ball, which allows a wider view of the area to the side and rear of the vehicle. When you see something that is in both the flat and convex mirror, you should judge its position to your vehicle by use of the flat mirror. When you can see something in the convex mirror, but not in the flat mirror, then it is in the blind-spot area. It will be unsafe to move into its path.
Procedures For Backing: (4 steps)
1. Place your foot firmly on the brake, and shift into reverse.
2. Use a target to aim the car toward. Look over your right shoulder to see your targeting path.
3. Check all three mirrors to supplement looking over your shoulder.
4. Travel no faster than a crawl by slightly releasing brake-pedal pressure.
Entering Traffic Flows: (4 steps)
1. Check to your left, front and right zones before entering a traffic flow. Find a safe space to enter within the traffic flow.
2. Select the proper and legal lane to enter and accelerate smoothly until operating at travel speed.
3. After entering a traffic flow, cancel the turn signal manually if necessary.
4. Re-evaluate the rear zone for fast approaching vehicles.
Making Right and Left Turns: (7 steps)
1. Position your vehicle in the correct lane for the turn.
2. Brake early to reduce speed.
3. Search the left, front, and right zones for vehciles, pedestrians, and bicyclists.
4. Slow to about 10 mph just before the crosswalk.
5. For a right turn, check to the left again before turning. Then look in the direction of the turn.
6. For a left turn, check traffic to the left, front, and right. Be certain there is no oncoming traffic, and that the path you intend to enter is clear.
7. Turn into the nearest lane of traffic going in your direction. Halfway through the turn, accelerate as you return the wheel to the straight-ahead position.
Lane Changes: (4 steps)
1. Put your signal light on.
2. Check your mirror and blind spot. Avoid unintentioanlly moving the steering wheel.
3. Gradually ease into your new lane.
4. Release the signal lever. Check behind you. Get the best speed and lane positioning to blend in with the traffic flow.
Turnabout:
A turnabout is when you turn your vehicle around to go in the oppostie direction.
Angle Parking:
AP spaces can be at the curb of a street or in a parking lot.
Perpendicular Parking:
PP is only used in parking lots.
Parallel Parking:
Parallel Parking is a method of backign between two vehicles that are parked alongside a curb.
Reference Point:
A RP is some part of the outside or inside of the vehicle, as viewed from the driver’s seat, that relates to a part of the roadway.
Standard Reference Points:
SRP are the RP on a vehicle that are typical for most drivers.
Personal Reference Point:
A PRP is an adaption of a standard reference point for your own vehicle.
Foward Reference Point:
The FRP is when steering should begin during a maneuver.
Steps to park in an Angle Space: (5 steps)
1. Check behind you. Check the parking space to see if it is legal and clear of obstacles and pedestrians. Tap your break lights to warn drivers behind you.
2. You should have at least six feet of side space away from the parked vehicles. Your forward reference point is the center of the space at the curb.
3. Quickly turn the steering wheel while the vehicle is moving slowly.
4. Line up with a target at curbside, such as a parking meter. Straighten the car and tires.
5. Place the tip of the bumper even with the curb.
Steps to Perpendicular Park: (5 steps)
Same as an Angle space but instead of six feet it is eight.
Steps to leaving an Angle or Perpendicular Space: (2 steps)
1. Creep straight back by controlling speed with your brake. When your front bumper is even with the rear bumper of the vehicle that is on the opposite side of where the back of your vehicle will go, begin to turn the steering wheel.
2. Stay close to the parked cars when backing to reduce risk from approaching traffic. Straighten the tires, shift to a foward gear. Proceed forward as you check the front. Recheck behind you for fast-approaching vehicles.
Perpendicular Back-In Parking: (7 steps)
1. Signal a right turn. Check traffic to the rear, and tap your brake lights.
2. Position your vehicle so that its side is 3 feet from the parked cars, and your body appears to be aligned with the center of the parking space.
3. Select a target 45 degrees to your left, using the outer edge of the driver’s side mirror.
4. Align your vehicle with the target using the least forward motion possible, while quickly turning the steering wheel.
5. Line up your car with the parking space. Straighten your tires and shift to REVERSE.
6. Back until the corner of the car parked next to your space is in your rear window’s blind spot, then quickly turn the steering wheel all the way to thr right while backing slowly.
7. When your car is properly aligned in the space, straighten your tires. Back until the back line of the space appears to be in the middle of the rear side window.
Parallel Parking: (5 steps)
1. Signal a right turn and flash your brake lights. Evaluate the parking space to be sure it is legal and clear of objects. Stop about three feet away from the parked cars.
2. Then pull forward so that your rear bumper is even with the rear bumper of the vehicle parked in front of the space you want to enter.
3. Back slowly, controlling speed with your brake. When the back of the passenger’s seat is even with the rear bumper of the front vehicle, straighten the wheels. Look over your shoulder, through the rear window.
4. When your front bumper is even with the front vehicle’s back bumper, turn the wheel sharply left towards the street. Continue to back slowly to clear the front car’s rear bumper. Check to the back and front continually.
5. Straighten your tires and center the car when your vehicle is parallel to the curb.
Leaving a Parallel Parking Space: (4 steps)
1. Slowly back straight until your rear bumper almost touches the vehicle behind you. Turn the wheels sharply left as you stop. Signal a left turn. Check your left mirror and the blind-spot area.
2. Move the vehicle forward slowly. Check the right-front corner of your vehicle for clearance.
3. When you are halfway out of the parking space with your passengers door aligned with the street-side corner of the parked car, turn your wheels slowly to the right.
4. Scan the front again, and accelerate as you center your vehicle in the traffic lane.
When parking uphill against a curb, turn the front wheels to the ________________.
left
When parking uphill or downhill where there us no curb, turn your wheels to the _________________.
right
When parking downhill against a curb, turn the front wheels to the ________________.
right
The rearview mirror should be checked
whenever you apply the brakes.
When backing, you should
use mirrors to supplement looking out the rear window.
Risk Factors:
Anything that can increase the possibility of a collision, involved in driving.
The 3 types of risks:
Driver-Contributed Factors
Vehicle-Contributed Factors
Roadway- and Environmental-Contributed Factors
Identify:
The first step of the IPDE Process. This step involves much more than just seeing. You must know when to look, where to look, how to look, and what to look for.
Zone(s):
One of the six areas of space around a vehicle that is the width of a lane and extends as far as the driver can see.
Open Zone:
An OZ is space where you can drive without a restriction to your line of sight or to your intended path of travel.
Line Of Sight:
Your LOS is the distance you can see ahead in the direction you are looking.
Target Area:
The TA is the section of the roadway where the target is located in the center of your intended path, and the area to its right and left.
Closed Zone:
A CZ is a space not open to you because of a restriction in your line of sight or intended path of travel, such as a red traffic light.
Target-Area Range:
The TAR is the first searching range and is the space from your vehicle to the target area. You search this range to detect early any conditions that might affect your intended POT.
12-15 Second Range:
Next you search the 12-15 SR, which is the space you will travel in during the next 12-15 seconds. This range is where you need to idenitfy changes in your LOS or POT to make decisions about controlling your intended path.
4-6 Second Range:
This is the space you will travel in during the next 4-6 seconds. In this range you need to get the final update of how you are controlling your intended path of travel.
Orderly Visual Search Pattern:
The OVSP is a process of searching critical areas in a regular sequence. To use an OVSP, look for clues in and around your intended path of travel in a systematic manner.
Field Of Vision:
The area you can see around you while looking straight.
Central Vision:
The area you can see clearly and sharply.
Depth Perception:
The ability to judge the relative distance of objects corectly.
Scanning:
Glancing continually and quickly with brief fixations through your OVSP.
Ground Viewing:
GV is making quick glances to the roadway in front of your vehicle. When other vehicles are approaching, use GV to see where they are headed by checking the direction of their front wheels.
Predict:
When you take the information that you have identified and imagine what might happen.
Execute:
Once you make a decision, the execute step of the IPDE Process will follow. To execute a decision means that you carry out the action that you have decided upon. In order to do this, you wil use your vehicle’s controls and safety devices.
Space Cushion:
The area of space all around your vehicle.
Minimize a Hazard:
Reduce the possibility of conflict, by deciding to put more distance between yourself and the hazard.
Compromise Space:
Giving as much space as possible to the greater hazard.
Maneuvers:
Actions to reduce hazards.
Emotion:
Strong feeling.
Aggressive Driving:
Driving without regard for others’ safety.
Road Rage:
Driving with the intent to harm others.
Visual Activity:
The ability to see things clearly.
Peripheral Vision::
Surrounds your central vision. Sensitive to light and motion.
Fringe Vision:
The part of your PV closest to your CV. Your Side FV is used to monitor a zone condition after it has been clearly identified in CV. The Upper FV is used to detect changes in the rear mirror. The Lower FV is used to monitor reference points for vehicle position.
Tunnel Vision:
A narrow field of vision of 140 degrees or less.
Speed Smear:
The blur when objects off to your side become blurred and distorted as your speed increases.
Temporary Disability:
A disability that can improve and clear up.
Euphoria:
A condition where it is a false feeling of well being.
Inhibitions:
The forces of a personality that restrain or hold back impulsive behaviors.
1 Servings of alcohol = ___________ % BAC
.02-.03
3 Servings of alcohol = ___________ % BAC
.05-.09
4 Servings of alcohol = ___________ % BAC
.10-.12
Alcoholism:
Long-term use of alcohol, an addiction to alcohol.
Blood-Alcohol Concentration: (BAC)
The amount of blood detected in a person’s bloodstream.
12 oz Beer times 5% of Alcohol = _______ oz of alcohol in drink
.60 because 12 times .05
5 oz wine times 12% of Alcohol = ________ oz of alcohol in drink
.60 because 5 times .12
1.5 oz of whiskey (80 proof) times 40% of Alcohol = ________ oz of alcohol
.60 because 1.5 times .40
1 beer with .02-.03 BAC range = _____ approx time to eliminate alcohol
1.5 hours
2 beers with .004-.06 BAC range = ____ aprrox time to eliminate alcohol
3 hours
3 beers with .06-.09 BAC range = _____ approx time to eliminate alcohol
4 to 5 hours
4 beers with .08-.12 BAC range = _______ approx time to eliminate alcohol
5 to 7 hours
Designated Driver:
The DD decides not to drink in order to stay sober so that he can drive without impairments.
Over-The-Counter Medicines: (OTCs)
Drugs that are available without a doctor’s prescriptio. Side effects are drowsiness, dizziness, slowed reaction time, and poor judgement.
Prescription Medicines:
Drugs that cannot be purchased without a doctor’s order, or prescription.
Depressant:
A class of drugs that depress, or slow down, the central nervous system. Ex: alcohol, barbiturates, sleeping pills, and tranquilizers. These are taken to relieve tension, calm nerves, or even treat high blood presure.
Stimulant:
A drug that speeds up the central nervous system.
Synergistic Effect:
When other drugs are combined with alcohol, the effects of both drugs can be multiplied.
Illegal Per Se Laws:
This law that is in all states, established BAC levels 0.08 or greater is illegal. IPSL are state laws that make it a criminal offense to operate a motor vehicle at or above a specfied alcohol concentration in either the blood, breath, or urine; or with any amount of a drug, usually a controlled (illegal) substance, in the body.
Implied Consent Law:
IC means that anyone who operates a motor vehicle automatically consents to be tested for BAC and other drugs if stopped for suspicion of drug use while driving. If the driver does not cooperate with the police officer and refuses to be tested for BAC, the driver’s license can be suspended.
Zero Tolerance Law:
If you are under the age of 21 and have a BAC greater than .02 (depending on laws in your state), you are guilty of breaking the law.
Dram Shop Law:
A person who serves alcoholic beverages to an intoxicated individual may be liable for the damages caused by that individual.
Field Sobriety Test:
A series of on-the-spot roadside tests such as coordination and eye checks that help a police officer detect driver impairment.
Nystagmus:
The involuntary jerkig of the eyes as the person gazes to the side.
Peer Pressure:
An external force that results from peers trying to influence you to do certain things or act in a certain way.
Peer Influence:
An internal force created out of a desire to be accepted.
Driver Inattention:
When a driver’s awareness and focus drift to anything other than the driving task.
Distracted Driving:
When an event, person, activity, or object draws a driver’s attention away from the driving task.
Cognitive Distractions:
When your mind is lost in thought or in a daydream. Also talking on a cell phone. You are not focusing mentally on the primary task of driving.
Visual Distraction:
Anything that causes you to take your eyes off the roadway ahead.
Auditory Distractions:
Any distractions caused by sounds.
Biomechanical Distraction:
An mechanical act not specifically related to driving that is performed by a driver. Ex: Pushing a button, turning a dial, or picking up a CD or soft drink.
Projectiles:
Flying objects that could be a hazard to a driver or passenger.
Gawking:
When a person stares
Rubbernecking:
When a person continually looks all around the scene.
Inertia:
The law of inertia is that objects that are at rest tend to stay at rest and objects that are moving tend to keep moving.
Momentum:
The tendency of an object to stay in motion, or the inertia of an object in motion.
Energy Of Motion:
Kinetic energy. A vehicle’s EOM changes in proportion to the weight of the vehicle. The more a vehicle weighs, the greater its energy of motion.
Gravity:
The force that pulls all things to Earth.
Friction:
The force that acts between materials as they move past each other.
Traction:
Traction makes it possible for your vehicle to grip the road so you can control speed and direction.
Tread:
The grooved surface of a tire. It provides traction for starting, stopping, and gripping the road.
Blowout:
When all the air escapes at once out of a tire.
Vehicle Balance:
The distribution of a vehicle’s weight on its tires as they contact the ground.
Center Of Gravity:
The point at which an object’s weight is evenly distributed.
Pitch:
A tilting motion from front to back.
Roll:
When a vehicle may also tip to the side.
Yaw:
When a vehicle rotates clockwise or counterclockwise.
Total Stopping Distance:
The distance your car travels from the time you first perceive a hazard until you reach a full stop.
Perception Time:
The length of time it takes you to identify a hazard, predict a conflict, and decide to brake.
Perception Distance:
The distance your car travels during your perception time.
Reaction Time:
Once you identify a hazard, the length of time you take to apply the brakes.
Reaction Distance:
The distance your vehicle travels while you react.
Braking Distance:
The distance your vehicle travels from the time you apply the brake until you stop.
Force Of Impact:
The force with which a moving object hits another objeect.
Active Restraint Device: (Ex:)
Ex: Safety belt
Passive Restraint Device: (Ex:)
Ex: Air bag
Perception Time Equation:
Perception Time= 1.1 times speed
Reaction Time Equation:
Reaction Time= 1.1 speed
Braking Distance Equation:
Braking Distance= speed^2 times .039

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