Unit 3 mastering Bio.

question

Which of the following sentences correctly makes use of terms from the introduction to biotechnology?
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Genetic engineering can move genes from one species into another, creating a transgenic organism.
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The pointer is indicating the virus’s _____.
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genome
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Viral DNA makes mRNA by the process of _____.
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transcription
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How does the definition of “transformation” in Griffith’s work with lethal and non-lethal strains of Streptococcus relate to the use of the term in this chapter?
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This chapter expands the definition of transformation to include the specific mechanism, DNA transfer, by which bacteria can gain new traits.
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Which of the following is a major difference between PCR and replication of DNA during the cell cycle?
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PCR only copies a specific portion of DNA. Replication copies the entire genome.
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Looking at the gel below, what can you conclude about the DNA in these samples?
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The DNA in sample C is longer than the DNA in sample A.
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Which of these DNA molecules is the shortest?
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E
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In gel electrophoresis DNA molecules migrate from _____ to _____ ends of the gel.
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negative … positive
question

Why is golden rice pale yellow in color?
answer

It is rich in beta-carotene.
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Which of these is a symptom of vitamin A deficiency?
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blindness
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Which of these is a vitamin A precursor?
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beta-carotene
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The transfer of antibiotic-resistant genes from genetically engineered bacteria to disease-causing bacteria _____.
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seems unlikely
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DNA fragment A consists of _____ base pairs.
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1,268
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Which of these genes are located on the q arm of chromosome 17?
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gastrin and GH1
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The RP13 gene of chromosome 17 codes for a protein _____.
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involved in eye development
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The gene that codes for gastrin is located on the _____ of chromosome 17.
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q arm
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The TP53 gene of chromosome 17 codes for a protein _____.
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involved in the regulation of the cell cycle
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Which of these genes codes for a protein that plays a role in growth?
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GH1
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Which of these genes codes for a protein that plays a role in white blood cell function?
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MPO
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You perform a restriction digest using Allele 2, run the sample on a gel, and probe using a piece of DNA that spans this extra restriction site. Which sample on the gel below belongs to Allele #2?
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sample C
question

Why have Florida citrus farmers been using more pesticides?
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In an effort to kill the organism that spreads citrus greening.
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Which of the following techniques are scientists using to disrupt the DNA in crop species in the hope of speeding up evolution?
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Bombarding the plants with radiation.
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You are buying groceries at a typical American grocery store. Which of the following foods is most likely to be genetically modified or contain genetically modified ingredients?
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corn meal
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You are a member of Greenpeace and wish to organize a protest outside of the federal agency in charge of food labeling in the U.S. Where should you take your group of protestors?
answer

Food and Drug Administration
question

Utilizing a gene from which of the following currently appears to offer the most hope of saving Florida’s orange trees from citrus greening?
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spinach
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Imagine if proteins were constructed from 45 amino acids instead of 20. How many bases long would each codon in the DNA need to be in order to code for 45 unique amino acids?
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three
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In the diagram below, the gray unit represents _____.
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RNA polymerase
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In the diagram below, the green unit represents _____.
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the promoter
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In the diagram below, the two blue strands represent _____.
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DNA
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Which of these correctly illustrates the pairing of DNA and RNA nucleotides?
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GTTACG CAAUGC
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The direction of synthesis of an RNA transcript is _____.
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5′ —> 3′
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The genetic code is often described as redundant. What feature of the genetic code does this reference?
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Most amino acids have more than one codon.
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How does RNA polymerase know where to start transcribing a gene?
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RNA polymerase binds to the promoter of the gene.
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Which of the following is a good reason for mRNA to be single-stranded, instead of double-stranded like DNA?
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because a complementary strand of RNA would prevent the binding of tRNA anticodons to the codon
question

What type of mutation is caused by adding one nucleotide into the middle of a sequence?
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insertion
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The operon model of the regulation of gene expression in bacteria was proposed by _____.
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Jacob and Monod
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Which of these is NOT a component of the lac operon?
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regulatory gene only
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Regulatory proteins bind to _____.
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the operator
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In the presence of a regulatory protein the lac operon is _____.
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not transcribed
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In this animation the blue sphere represents _____.
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lactose
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Click on the diagram to start the animation. In this animation the orange object represents _____.
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RNA polymerase
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Which of these is a regulatory gene?
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D
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The protein pepsin is produced in the cells lining the stomach, but not in cheek cells. Why is this?
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There are no transcription factors for pepsin in cheek cells.
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What would you expect to see inside the cells of a woman with Turner’s syndrome (XO)?
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no Barr bodies
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Which of the following would have to be collected to provide a sample for a DNA profile from a home testing kit?
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saliva or blood
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You wish to write a letter of concern to the federal agency in charge of regulating home DNA testing kits. Who should you contact?
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Food and Drug Administration
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You buy a home DNA test kit and you send in a sample. What is being read to analyze your results?
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SNPs
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You are a geneticist and discover a gene that increases the chance of an individual getting colon cancer. Can you patent this gene?
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No
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Which of the following is a big concern regarding home DNA test kits?
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The lack of standards.
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If there is a gene in humans that works the same as MRAP2 in mice, what will happen if it is switched off?
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The individual will gain weight.
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Your friend was adopted. Her weight is most likely to be similar to who?
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her biological mother
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Following the old concept of weight loss and caloric intake and assuming you do not begin an exercise program, how many Calories a day would you have to give up every day in order to lose one pound in a week?
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500
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Which of the following is true regarding mice lacking MRAP2?
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Their appetites increased as they got older.
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What do current studies indicate?
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Humans have similar genetic responses to weight gain as mice lacking MRAP2.
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According to the findings in this study, which of the following is true?
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The environment plays a role in the cause of certain diseases.
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Rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, and multiple sclerosis are all autoimmune diseases. Which of the following is true?
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Gene switches likely play a role in these diseases.
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Rather than “junk” DNA, such material is now referred to as what?
answer

Dark matter
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Your identical twin is diagnosed with Crohn’s disease. Which of the following is true?
answer

You may or may not get Crohn’s disease.
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According to this study, which of the following is true?
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In humans, less DNA is used for genes than gene switches.
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The lytic cycle of bacteriophage infection ends with the _____.
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rupture of the bacterium
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The pointer is indicating the _____.
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viral protein coat
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As a result of the lytic cycle, _____.
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the host cell’s DNA is destroyed
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What did Wilkins and Franklin discover?
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DNA is a helix with repeating subunits.
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How can we best summarize the role of Watson and Crick in discovering the structure of DNA?
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They created a key hypothesis for the structure of DNA.
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In a DNA double helix an adenine of one strand always pairs with a(n) _____ of the complementary strand, and a guanine of one strand always pairs with a(n) _____ of the complementary strand.
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thymine … cytosine
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After DNA replication is completed, _____.
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each new DNA double helix consists of one old DNA strand and one new DNA strand
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The first step in the replication of DNA is catalyzed by _____.
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helicase
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The action of helicase creates _____.
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replication forks and replication bubbles
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Why is the new DNA strand complementary to the 3′ to 5′ strands assembled in short segments?
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DNA polymerase can assemble DNA only in the 5′ to 3′ direction
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The synthesis of a new strand begins with the synthesis of a(n) _____.
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RNA primer complementary to a preexisting DNA strand
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An old DNA strand is used as a _____ for the assembly of a new DNA strand.
answer

template
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Short segments of newly synthesized DNA are joined into a continuous strand by _____.
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ligase
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After DNA replication is completed, _____.
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each new DNA double helix consists of one old DNA strand and one new DNA strand
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The first step in the replication of DNA is catalyzed by _____.
answer

helicase
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The action of helicase creates _____.
answer

replication forks and replication bubbles
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Why is the new DNA strand complementary to the 3′ to 5′ strands assembled in short segments?
answer

DNA polymerase can assemble DNA only in the 5′ to 3′ direction
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The synthesis of a new strand begins with the synthesis of a(n) _____.
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RNA primer complementary to a preexisting DNA strand
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Which of these is responsible for catalyzing the formation of an RNA primer?
answer

D (the green square)
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An old DNA strand is used as a _____ for the assembly of a new DNA strand.
answer

template
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Which of the following build(s) new strands of DNA?
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DNA polymerases
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Which statement about DNA replication is CORRECT?
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The leading strand is built continuously, and the lagging strand is built in pieces.
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During DNA replication, which nucleotide will bind to an A nucleotide in the parental DNA?
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T
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The molecule that seals the gaps between the pieces of DNA in the lagging strand is
answer

DNA ligase.
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Which statement about DNA replication is FALSE?
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DNA ligase adds nucleotides to the lagging strand.
question

Which of the following is most responsible for DNA forming a double helix instead of a single helix?
answer

hydrogen bonding between bases
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How is DNA replication most affected by the two strands of DNA running in antiparallel directions?
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Replication of one strand must be discontinuous.
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You wish to prove that DNA replication is semi-conservative. You choose to work with bacteria because they only have a single chromosome. You have a very special device that can measure radiation in individual cells. Which radioactive element or compound should you add to the cells prior to division and what do you expect to see?
answer

Add radioactive phosphate and expect each cell to contain a radioactive chromosome.
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How do mutations affect an organism?
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all of the above
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DNA replication occurs at an unbelievably fast rate. Once replication is complete, we can expect to find a _____ number of mistakes.
answer

small
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A female that is planning to become pregnant is concerned about her exposure to environmental mutagens which may have caused DNA mutations. In order for these mutations to become heritable, they must affect the:
answer

her egg cells
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Which of the following would indicate a base pairing mutation in DNA?
answer

a G paired with a T
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In replicating a DNA strand, polymerase makes a mistake and puts adenine across from guanine. How might a proofreading enzyme detect this mistake?
answer

The two nucleotides are too large to fit across from each other. The enzyme will notice the bulge.
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A thymine base is replaced by a cytosine in a DNA molecule. What type of mutation is this?
answer

substitution
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UV rays can strike two thymine bases sitting beside each other on the same strand, causing them to become linked tightly to one another. This pulls the thymines closer together, altering the spacing of the nucleotides. What kind of error during replication is this likely to cause?
answer

deletion
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Assuming other things to be equal, which of the following individuals is most likely to suffer from heart disease?
answer

A person with high LDL levels.
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Your uncle suffers from heart disease and controls it with a common form of medicine. What does he take?
answer

statin
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What is currently believed to be the biggest hurdle to overcome with the new heart disease drugs being tested?
answer

They are expensive.
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You are a scientist for the federal agency in charge of deciding if a new heart disease drug can be used. Who do you work for?
answer

Food and Drug Administration
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Your family is known to have a mutation in PCSK9. Which of the following is true?
answer

Members of your family are more likely to have a heart attack or stroke.
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You are a molecular biologist and wish to change the proteins that cells make. Which of the following should you do?
answer

Change the sequence of the nucleotides.
question

Which of the following is in the correct order from simplest to most complex?
answer

nucleotide, amino acid, protein
question

You work for Synthorx, creating synthetic DNA. You create a sequence on one strand of CTXAGGC. What is its complimentary strand?
answer

GAYTCCG
question

Your cousin is a xenobiologist working to insert synthetic DNA into a virus with the goal of creating a vaccine for H.I.V. If she follows similar methods to those already used, which of the following will she need to aid her in this process?
answer

algae gene
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Which of the following has yet to be shown?
answer

Cells with synthetic nucleotides make new proteins.
question

Which of the following is most likely to be passed on to the next generation?
answer

a mutation in the DNA in cells in the ovaries
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In the 1800s, it was commonly believed that the traits of both parents for any feature blended to create the offspring and that the blended trait was passed on. Which of the following observations was most important to Mendel’s understanding of genes as unchanged units of information?
answer

Recessive traits can reappear in later generations.
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Considering pea flowers, where purple is dominant to white, describe the genotype of a plant with the alleles Pp.
answer

heterozygous
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Mendel worked _____.
answer

in a monastery
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Which of the following represents an EXCEPTION to the law of independent assortment?
answer

linkage
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Which of these facts, if he had known them, might have led Mendel to formulate different rules for inheritance?
answer

There are many genes on each chromosome.
question

What error is responsible for creating Jacob syndrome?
answer

nondisjunction of chromosomes
question

Considering all the genetic diseases covered in this chapter, what general conclusion can you draw about genetic diseases?
answer

Most genetic diseases are pleiotropic.
question

Which of the following tools is NEVER necessary when evaluating a gene with incomplete dominant inheritance?
answer

test cross
question

Doing which of the following increases your risk of developing heart disease?
answer

Smoking.
question

Your brother died of a heart attack at age 47. Assuming no other risk factors, what does this do to your chance of developing heart disease?
answer

Doubles it.
question

Which of the following is true?
answer

If a person has early heart disease, their children may or may not have it.
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Your aunt is 63 and has a non-fatal heart attack. Which of the following is true?
answer

She is younger than average for having a first heart attack. (found this answer to be shocking)
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You are a cardiovascular surgeon. Where do you insert stents?
answer

blocked arteries
question

Your 28 year old friend is pregnant. Which of the following screenings is she most likely to initially have to test for Down syndrome?
answer

blood test
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How is the fetal DNA used in this new screening tool unique?
answer

It is not from a cell, but is floating freely in the mother’s blood.
question

Which of the following is true?
answer

The chance of having a child with a chromosomal abnormality increases with the age of the mother.
question

Which of the following is true regarding this new fetal DNA test?
answer

A decreased number of false positive tests for both Down syndrome and Trisomy 18.
question

Which of the following best summarizes current research on this new fetal DNA test?
answer

It works well for finding errors in chromosome number.
question

What defines a short sleeper?
answer

They can function well on 6 hours of sleep or less.
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While it is estimated that less than 5% of the population are short sleepers,
answer

an estimated 30% of the population sleep only 6 hours per night or less.
question

The risks of sleep deprivation include which of the following?
answer

all of the above
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The discovery of a gene associated with short sleepers means that
answer

there is potential to manipulate sleep pathways with medication.
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Since there is a genetic explanation for short sleepers, you would expect
answer

that this trait appears more frequently among family members.
question

Current best estimates suggest that life has been on Earth for how long?
answer

3.5 billion years
question

If life exists or originated on another planet, most scientists today believe that it is which of the following planets?
answer

Mars
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Which of the following is true regarding current scientific thought?
answer

RNA originated before DNA.
question

You discover a new means of energy transfer by organisms living in hydrothermal vents in the ocean. Who is most likely to be interested in funding your research?
answer

Everett Shock
question

Which of the following scientists is closest to creating life?
answer

J. Craig Venter
question

dys- difficult trop- change ad- to poly- many neutr- neither gender de- from, out of non- not anti-against -phil- to love co- together
answer

question

hem- blood hetero- different trans- across semi- one half -ase -enzyme intra- within tri- three meta- change, after lact- milk
answer

question

How do cells fit long pieces of DNA into a compartment as small as the nucleus?
answer

The DNA is wrapped around histones.
question

What is the function of the telomere?
answer

Telomeres prevent the ends of chromosomes from being damaged.
question

True or false. Mitosis takes place during M phase of the cell cycle, which is longer than interphase.
answer

false
question

A certain species of animal has six pairs of chromosomes. How many DNA molecules are present in the nuclei of these animals during G2 phase?
answer

24
question

Which of the following checkpoints does not occur late in G1?
answer

A check that chromosome replication has been successfully completed
question

Compare the cells of a woman’s leg muscle to the cells of a baby growing inside her womb. What is the most important difference between them?
answer

The chromosomes in the cells of the woman’s leg muscle are genetically identical to the rest of her body. The baby’s cells contain only half of the mother’s chromosomes.
question

Nucleoli are present during _____.
answer

interphase
question

Cytokinesis often, but not always, accompanies _____.
answer

telophase
question

Chromosomes become visible during _____.
answer

prophase
question

Centromeres divide and sister chromosomes become full-fledged chromosomes during _____.
answer

anaphase
question

Spindle fibers attach to kinetochores during _____.
answer

prometaphase
question

Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____.
answer

anaphase
question

Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____.
answer

cytokinesis as it occurs in animal cells
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Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____.
answer

prophase
question

Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____.
answer

metaphase
question

Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____.
answer

prometaphase
question

Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____.
answer

cytokinesis as it occurs in plant cells
question

Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____.
answer

telophase
question

During prophase a homologous pair of chromosomes consists of _____.
answer

two chromosomes and four chromatids
question

Stages of the cell cycle activity
answer

interphase->prophase->metaphase->anaphase-> telophase
question

Centrioles duplicate during the cell cycle. Given your knowledge of the cell cycle, when would you guess that the duplication of centrioles occurs?
answer

S phase
question

Which phase of mitosis comes last during cell division?
answer

telophase
question

Which of these is NOT a carcinogen?
answer

all of the above are carcinogens
question

_____ is a carcinogen that promotes colon cancer.
answer

fat
question

Meiosis concept map
answer

a. diploid organisms b. haploid gametes c. meiosis d. maternal chromosomes e. crossing over occurs f. sister chromatids separate
question

Meiosis starts with a single diploid cell and produces
answer

four haploid cells.
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A cell preparing to undergo meiosis duplicates its chromosomes during
answer

interphase.
question

During prophase I of meiosis,
answer

homologous chromosomes stick together in pairs.
question

The correct order of events during meiosis is
answer

prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, cytokinesis, meiosis II.
question

During meiosis, segments of nonsister chromatids can trade places. This recombination of maternal and paternal genetic material is a key feature of meiosis. During what phase of meiosis does recombination occur?
answer

prophase I.
question

Which of the following is a correct description of meiosis?
answer

Meiosis is one round of DNA replication followed by two rounds of cell division.
question

Which of these phases is the most different between mitosis and meiosis?
answer

anaphase and anaphase I
question

Asexual and sexual life cycles What name is given to this process?
answer

asexual reproduction
question

Gametes are produced by _____.
answer

meiosis
question

Normal human gametes carry _____ chromosomes.
answer

23
question

Which of these cells is (are) haploid?
answer

C and D
question

A diploid organism whose somatic (nonsex) cells each contain 32 chromosomes produces gametes containing _____ chromosomes.
answer

16
question

In the laboratory fruit fly, n is 4. How many different chromosome sets can be produced by one fly, excluding crossing over?
answer

24 variations
question

Which of the following is necessary for cancer to begin in a person?
answer

a mutation in the person’s DNA
question

Which of the following is true?
answer

A specific gene can be involved with the development of more than one type of cancer.
question

Which of the following is most likely to happen if a developing embryo lacks integrin?
answer

The embryo will be unable to stay attached to the uterine wall.
question

You are an oncologist trying to invent a drug that prevents tumors from creating their own blood supply. What are you looking to stop?
answer

angiogenesis
question

A person would be born with webbed hands and/or feet if which of the following failed to happen?
answer

apoptosis
question

Which of the following currently appears most beneficial in preventing cancer?
answer

Not smoking
question

Based on current findings, which of the following individuals is most likely to get cancer?
answer

An obese male who eats a lot of fruits and vegetables.
question

You are an oncologist and agree with the 1997 findings published by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research. What do you believe?
answer

Eating judicious amounts of fruits and vegetables will decrease a person’s risk of developing cancer.
question

For many years, it was believed that heavy consumption of which of the following increased a person’s chance of getting colon cancer?
answer

red meat
question

You are an epidemiologist studying the effects of years of vigorous exercise on health. You ask participants to recall how much they have exercised per week every week for the last three years. What type of study are you conducting?
answer

retrospective
question

Research indicates that the best estimate of your age is from ______.
answer

markers in your cells
question

The cells examined from the 2,400 people in this study were from ______.
answer

blood
question

Which of the following damages cells and causes cell aging?
answer

inflammation
question

The researchers used strands of DNA located at the ends of chromosomes (called telomeres) to classify the cells they studied. What assumption did they make about telomeres?
answer

Longer telomeres indicate younger cells.
question

The researchers found that telomeres were ______.
answer

longer in individuals who exercised regularly
question

The research showed that individuals who _______ had younger looking cells based on telomere measurements.
answer

exercised for an average of 30 minutes per day
question

Which of the following is true?
answer

Once it is established in a population, a new mutation may increase or decrease in frequency depending on the environment.
question

You are infected with an antibiotic-resistant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Where did you most likely contract it?
answer

hospital
question

Which of the following is true?
answer

Current research indicates that medians are not similar to islands when comparing the diversity of animals or plants.
question

Natural selection ultimately depends on favorable what?
answer

mutations
question

You discover that a company illegaly dumped old vats of PCBs into a nearby river. What do you expect to see?
answer

Fish with deformities.
question

The overall process of nuclear division is known as….
answer

Mitosis
question

___ is the first phase of mitosis
answer

Prophase
question

___ is the second phase of mitosis
answer

metaphase
question

__ is the final stage of mitosis
answer

Telophase
question

___is the stage of the cell cycle between cell division
answer

Interphase
question

___ is the stage of the cell cycle when the cytoplasm and organelles divide into two daughter cells
answer

Cytokinesis
question

A(n) ___ consist of a very long DNA molecule associated with many proteins
answer

Chromosomes
question

In the process known as ____, a bacterium divides in half
answer

Binary fission

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