Unit 2: Nuclear Chemistry Test Review

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Alpha Particle
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A positively charged particle emitted from certain radioactive nuclei; identical to a helium nucleus.
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Beta Particle
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An electron resulting from the breaking apart of neutrons in an atom.
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Gamma Ray
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A high-energy photon emitted by a radioisotope.
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Radioisotope
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An isotope that has an unstable nucleus and undergoes radioactive decay.
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Radioactivity
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The process by which nuclei emit particles and rays.
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Nuclear Radiation
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The penetrating rays and particles emitted by a radioactive source.
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Nuclear Force
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An attractive force that acts between all nuclear particles that are extremely close together.
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Nuclear Fusion
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The process of combining nuclei to produce a nucleus of greater mass.
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Nuclear Fission
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The splitting of a nucleus into smaller fragments, accompanied by the release of neutrons and a large amount of energy.
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Half-life
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The time required for one half of the nuclei of a radioisotope sample to decay to products.
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Atomic Number = the number of _________.
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protons
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Neutral Atom (no charge): Protons = ___________.
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electrons
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Isotope: These are the atoms of the same element, same number of _________ with a different number of ________.
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protons/neutrons
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Most of the mass of an atom is concentrated in its _________.
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nucleus
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Although the nucleus doesn’t disappear, it does change as it emits these particles. Scientists call this process ___________ _______.
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radioactive decay
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Half-life is the term they use to describe how long it takes for one half of the atoms in a sample of radioactive material to undergo _______.
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decay
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The concept of the half-life of radioactive isotopes is used by scientist to date objects using the half-life of carbon atoms. This process is called ________ ________.
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carbon dating
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Alpha consists of what type of particles?
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2 protons & 2 neutrons
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Alpha can be stopped by what type of material?
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skin or a sheet of paper
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Alpha has what type of charge?
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positive
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Beta consists of what type of particles?
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1 electron
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Beta can be stopped by what type of material?
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aluminum or bone
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Beta has what type of charge?
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negative
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Gamma consists of what type of particles?
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Electromagnetic Radiation (waves)
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Gamma can be stopped by what type of material?
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concrete, water, or lead
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Gamma has what type of charge?
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neutral
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What is the half life of carbon?
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5730 years
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What isotopes are most commonly used in radioactive dating?
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Carbon-14

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