Unit 16: Treatment

Flashcard maker : Bernice Cooper
Psychological Assessment
an evaluation of the patient;s psychological and mental health
Inattention
6/ more have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is inconsistent with a developmental level, and that negatively impacts directly on social and academic/occupational activities
1. fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in school work, at work, or during other activities
2. often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
3. often doesn’t seem to listen when spoken to directly
4. often doesn’t follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, duties in workplace.
5. often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
6. often avoids dislikes or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort
7. often loses things necessary for tasks and activities
8. is easily distracted by extraneous stimuli
9. is often forgetful in daily activities
Hyperactivity and Impulsivity
six or more of the following symptoms have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is inconsistent w/ for the developmental level, and that negatively impacts directly on social and academic/occupational activities
1. often fidgets or taps hands or feet or squirms in seat
2. often leaves seat in situations when remaining seated is expected
3. often runs about or climbs on situations where it is not appropriate
4. often unable to play or take part in leisure activities
5. is often “on the go” acting as is driven by a motor
6. often talks excessively
7. often blurts out an answer before a question has been completed
8. often has trouble waiting for his or her turn
9. often interrupts or intrudes on others
ADHD – Two forms
1. Inattention
2. Hyperactivity
—> several inattentive or hyperactive impulsive symptoms were present prior to age 12
–> Several inattentive or hyperactive impulsive symptoms are present in two or more settings
–> there is clear evidence that the symptoms interfere with or reduce the quality of social, academic, or occupational functioning
psychotherapy
the professional treatment for psychology disorder through techniques designed to encourage communication of conflicts and insght
Psychodynamic Therapy (psychoanalysis)
is a psychological treatment based on Freuidan and neo-Freudian personality theories in which the therapist helps to patient explore the unconscious dynamics of personality
Interpretation
allowing the therapist to try to understand the underlying unconscious problems that are causing the symptoms
Free Association
therapist listens while the client talks about whatever comes to mind, without any censorship of filtering
Dream Analysis
analyze the symbol of the dream in an effort to probe the unconscious thought of the client and interpret their signifigance
Insight
an understanding of the unconscious causes of the disorder
–> goal of psychotherapy
Resistance
using defense mechanisms to avoid the painful feelings in his or her unconcious
Transference
the patient unconsciously redirects feelings experienced in an important personal relationship toward the therapist
Important characteristics and experiences in psychoanalysis
free association
dream analysis
insight
interpretation
resistance
transference
Humanistic Therapy
a psychological treatment based on the personality theories of carl rogers and other humanistic psychologists
–> based on the idea that people develop psychological problems when they are burdened by limits and expectations placed on themselves and others
Person-centered therapy (or client-centered therapy)
an approach to treatment in which the client is helped to grow and develop as the therapist provides a comfortable, nonjudgemental environement
–> Carl Rogers
Therapeutic alliance
relationship between the client and the therapist that is facilitated when the therapist is genuine when the therapist treats the client with unconditional positive regard, and when the therapist develops empathy with the client
Cognitive Therapy
a psychological treatment that helps clients identify incorrect or distorted beliefs that are contributing to disorder
–> Changing thoughts will change emotions and that new emotions will influence behavior
Rational Emotive Behavior therapy OR rational emotive therapy
Aaron T beck and Albert Ellis – the basic principles of cognitive therapy
Behavioral Therapy
a psychological treatment that is based on principles of learning
–> operant conditioning / reward or punishment
Exposure Therapy
a behavioral therapy based on the classical conditioning principle of extinction in which people are confronted with a feared stimulus with the goal of decreasing their negative emotional responses to it
flooding
a client is exposed to the source of his fear all at once
Systematic Desensitization
a behavioral treatment that combines imagining or experiencing the feared object or situation with relaxation exercises
–> hierarchy of fears
Counterconditioning
a second incompatible response is conditioned to an already conditioned response
Virtual Reality CBT
a computer generated, three-dimensional, lifelike images of the feared stimulus in a systematic desensitization program
Aversion Therapy
a type of behavior therapy in which positive punishment is used to reduce the frequency of an undesirable behavior
–> alcoholism – patients administered the drug antabuse which makes them nauseous if they consume any alcohol
Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)
is a structured approach to treatment that attempt to reduce psychological disorders through systematic procedures based on cognitive and behavioral principles
Eclectic Therapy
an approach to treatment in which the therapist used whichever techniques seem most useful and relevant for a given patient
Dialectical behavioral therapy
a cognitive therapy but it included particular emphasis on attempting to enlist the help of the patient in his or her own treatment
Beck
pioneer in cognitive therapy
Ellis
founder of RET REBT (rational emotive therapy)
Which approach to therapy emphasizes the challenging of irrational, unrealistic beliefs?
Rational-emotive therapy targets irrational beliefs
Biomedical therapies
treatments designed to reduce psychological disorder by influencing the action of the central nervous system
–> ECT
–> TMS
–> psychosurgery
–> any treatments with medication or surgery that influence the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord)
What is ADHD most commonly treated with?
biomedical therapy + cognitive therapy
–> psychostimulants = ritalin/ adderall/ dexedrine
–> usually given in small daily doses
Antidepressant Medications
drugs designed to improve moods
–> tricyclic antidepressants
–> monamine oxidase inhibitors
–> increased the amount of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine at the synapses
Most perscribed anti depressants today are?
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)
–> prozac
–> Zoloft
–> less side affects
Anti-anxiety medications
drugs that help relieve fear or anxiety
–> increasing the action of the neurotransmitter GABA which helps inhibit the action of the sympathetic division – calming experience
most common anxiety medications are
tranquilizers- benzodiazepines
–> ativan, valium, xanax
Antipsychotic Drugs (neuroleptics)
drugs that treat the symptoms of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders
–> thorazine, haldol, clorazil, etc..
–> reduce transmission of dopamine at the synapses to in the limbic system
Tardive Dyskinesia
permanent neurological damage developed from the long term use of antipsychotic medications causing uncontrollable muscle movements, usually in the mouth area
What is the technical name for antipsychotic medications?
neuroleptics
Electroconvulsive Therapy
a medical procedure designed to alleviate psychological disorder in which electric currents are passed through the brain deliberately triggering a brief seizue
–> since 1930’s – severe depression
–> short term memory loss/ cognitive impairment
Transcranial magnetic Stimulation
a medical procedure designed to reduce psychological disorder that uses a pulsing magnetic coil to electrically stimulate the brain
–> depression, parkinsons, schizophrenia
Psychosurgery
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in the hope of improving disorder
–> prefrontal lobotomy (egas moniz)
what interventions can be used to treat a mood disorder?
ECT
TMS
SSRI
Group Therapy
psychotherapy in which clients receive psychological treatment together with others
Couples Therapy
two people who are cohabitating, married, or dating meet together with the practitioner to discuss their concerns and issues about their relationship
Family Therapy
involves families meeting together with a therapist
Self-Help Group
voluntary association of people who share a common desire to overcome psychological disorder or to improve their well-being.
–> gamblers anonymous
—> Alcoholics anonymous
Community Mental Health Services
Psychological treatments and interventions that are distributed at the community level
Primary Prevention
prevention in which all members of the community receive the treatment
Secondary prevention
more limited and focuses on people who are most likely to need it- those who display risk factors for a given disorder
risk factors
are the social, environmental, and economic vulnerabilities that make it more likely than average that a given individual will develop a disorder
Tertiary Prevention
is treatment such as psychotherapy or biomedical therapy that focuses on people who are already diagnosed with disorder
Risk factors of psychological disorders
academic difficulties
attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder
child abuse
developmental disorders
drug and alcohol use
dysfunctional family
early pregnancy
emotional immaturity
homelessness
learning disorder
parental mental illness
poor nutrition
poverty
implicit association test
predicted suicide attempts in the following 6 months above all other risk factors – implicit cognition may be useful for determining risk factor for clinical behaviors like suicide
Outcome Research
studies that assess the effectiveness of medical treatments
natural improvement
the possibility that people might get better over time, even without treatment
Nonspecific treatment effects
occur when the patient gets better over time simply by coming to therapy, even though it doesn’t matter what actually happens at the therapy sessions
Placebo Effects
improvements that occur as a result of the expectation that one will get better rather than from the actual effects of a treatment
Meta-analysis
a statistical technique that uses the results of existing studies to integrate and draw conclusions about those studies
Effect size
a measure of the effectiveness of treatment
Couples therapy represents one of the ______ approaches to psychological therapy
soical

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