Please enter something

Unit 14: Social Psychology

question

Social psychology
answer

Definition: The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another Remember: Being social is all about being with other people
question

Heider’s attribution theory
answer

Definition: The theory that we explain someone’s behavior by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition Example: Is that person angry just because they’re an angry person or is it because something bad happened?
question

Fundamental attribution error
answer

Definition: The tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition Example: When a generally sad person is sad, people ignore them because they’re always sad, but they could be going through an especially hard time right now and need someone to talk to
question

Foot-in-the-door phenomenon
answer

Definition: The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request Example: Saying yes to helping someone with their homework often times turns into doing the whole thing for them
question

Zimbardo’s prison experiment
answer

Definition: To find out if prison brutality is due to the guards being cruel people or to the cruel environment, Zimbardo converted the basement of Stanford University into a simulated prison → Students were randomly assigned to either be a guard or a prisoner and they were treated exactly like they would have been in a real prison → As a result, the guards started to act cruel to the prisoners and the prisoners became either resigned or rebellious, just like in a real prison, proving that the cruelty is due to the environment’s power set-up, not the people themselves Remember: We watched the video in class
question

Central route persuasion
answer

Definition: Attitude change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts Example: The person being persuaded is an active participant in the process of persuasion
question

Festinger’s cognitive dissonance
answer

Definition: The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent → When our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes Example: We know that what we’re about to do is wrong, so we don’t do it
question

Attitudes
answer

Definition: Feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events Example: If you don’t like math, you’ll have a negative attitude going into math class for the first time at the beginning of the year even though you’ve never experienced it before and it could turn out great
question

Belief perseverance
answer

Definition: The tendency to cling to one’s initial belief even after receiving new information that contradicts or dis-confirms the basis of that belief Example: Still believing that some girl can’t act even after she got the lead in the play and performed it very well
question

Conformity
answer

Definition: Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard Example: Changing the way you dress because the clothes you used to wear were clothes people made fun of
question

Obedience
answer

Definition: Compliance with an order, request, or law or submission to another’s authority Example: Obeying your parents and making your bed when they tell you to
question

Chameleon effect
answer

Definition: Unconscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviors of one’s interaction partners, such that one’s behavior passively and unintentionally changes to match that of others in one’s current social environment Example: When somebody yawns in class or is slouching in their seat, a lot of other people will also yawn or start slouching
question

Mood linkage
answer

Definition: The tendency to absorb and participate in the prevailing mood of the other people around Example: If you’re sad and your friends take you out to a party, it will probably make you feel better since everyone else at the party is happy and having a good time
question

Asch’s conformity experiment
answer

Definition: In the experiment, students were told that they were participating in a “vision test”, but they didn’t know that the other participants were Asch’s assistants, who at first, answered the questions correctly but then started to answer them incorrectly → Almost 75% of the students went along with the incorrect answers at least once Remember: We watched the video in class
question

Milgram’s obedience experiment
answer

Definition: Milgram wanted to test how far people would go in obeying an instruction if it involved harming another person → Some participants in the experiment were made to be teachers and the others, who were Milgram’s confederates, were the learners → The teachers were told to electrically shock the learners if they got the question wrong (no harm actually done – just a sound effect behind a wall) → The teachers obeyed, proving that ordinary people are very likely to carry out whatever orders the authority figure gives them Example: Offers an explanation as to why it was that the Nazis were so successful in carrying out the Holocaust
question

Normative social influence
answer

Definition: Influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval Example: Applauding after a play even though you didn’t really like it so that you don’t feel disapproved by everyone else there, especially the actors
question

Informational social influence
answer

Definition: Influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality Example: Naturally turning to the police for advice in an emergency
question

Social facilitation
answer

Definition: Stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others Example: Playing in your basketball game with extra-fancy tricks and lots of heart and soul because your dad is in the audience
question

Social loafing
answer

Definition: The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable Example: Someone in a group project not doing much work because they know the other members have their work to do on it too
question

Deindividuation
answer

Definition: The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity Example: The KKK was able to gain a huge membership because of the clothing they wore → The hoods made the members anonymous
question

Group polarization
answer

Definition: The enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group Example: Two opposing political parties meet for a discussion about an economic policy → They already disagree on it, but after the discussion, their disagreement will be even stronger
question

Groupthink
answer

Definition: The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives Example: The Bay of Pigs invasion happened because of groupthink → The group became so consumed with the group that they lost their ability to make good judgement
question

Prejudice
answer

Definition: An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members → Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action Example: Believing that African-Americans are not capable of going to college
question

Discrimination
answer

Definition: Unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members Example: Colleges not accepting African-Americans
question

Scapegoating
answer

Definition: The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame Example: After 9/11, the Middle Eastern community is seen as the scapegoat for terrorism
question

In-group bias
answer

Definition: The tendency to favor our own group Example: White people believing they’re the smartest in the class, even though there are African-American people getting the same grades
question

Out-group homogeneity
answer

Definition: One’s perception of out-group members as more similar to one another than are in-group members Example: “They are alike, we are diverse”
question

Just-world phenomenon
answer

Definition: The tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get Remember: “Just” means fair
question

Hindsight bias
answer

Definition: The tendency people have to view events as more predictable than they really are Example: After a basketball game, people say they knew that that team was going to win
question

Mere exposure effect
answer

Definition: The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them Example: Going to a foreign country, you might be nervous to try the food for the first time, but once you’ve eaten it a few times, you start to like it
question

Self-fulfilling prophecy
answer

Definition: A belief that leads to its own fulfillment Example: Start the day by thinking “Today is going to be a bad day” and it probably will turn out to be
question

Social role
answer

Definition: A set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave Example: Leaders have to be confident
question

Culture
answer

Definition: The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next Example: Every country has its own culture
question

Norm
answer

Definition: An understood rule for accepted and expected behavior → Norms prescribe “proper” behavior Example: Wear jeans and a t-shirt to school and you’ll be fine because that’s the norm, wear a formal gown and you’ll probably be looked at weirdly because that’s weird
question

Personal space
answer

Definition: The buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies Example: “Don’t burst my bubble!” when people get too close
question

Stereotype
answer

Definition: A generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people Example: Asian people are good at math, etc
question

Other-race effect
answer

Definition: The tendency to recall faces of one’s own race more accurately than faces of other races Example: Being a white person and seeing a line-up of people of different races, you’re most likely to remember the face of the other white person in the line
question

Frustration-aggression principle
answer

Definition: The principle that frustration – the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal – creates anger, which can generate aggression Example: Your brother being too loud when you’re trying to do homework, causing you to lose concentration and get mad at your brother
question

Passionate love
answer

Definition: An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship Example: What causes sex
question

Companionate love
answer

Definition: The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined Example: What causes long-term marriage
question

Equity
answer

Definition: A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it Example: Being a good friend to someone else and them being a good friend to you is an equitable relationship – one where you’re good to them and they do nothing for you is not
question

Self-disclosure
answer

Definition: Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others Example: Trusting a friend with something you’re embarrassed to tell other people
question

Altruism
answer

Definition: Unselfish regard for the welfare of others Example: A parent willing to die for their child
question

Bystander effect
answer

Definition: The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present Example: Bystanders are more likely to help if the car accident is on an empty road than if it’s in the middle of a busy city because less people are around
question

Diffusion of responsibility
answer

Definition: A sociopsychological phenomenon whereby a person is less likely to take responsibility for action or inaction when others are present Example: The bystander effect
question

Social exchange theory
answer

Definition: The theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs Example: The golden rule – “Treat others the way you want to be treated”
question

Reciprocity norm
answer

Definition: An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them Example: Friends don’t expect to be hurt by friends, they expect that friends will help them
question

Social-responsibility norm
answer

Definition: An expectation that people will help those dependent upon them Example: Children expect their parents to help them
question

Mirror image perceptions
answer

Definition: Mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive Example: Both political parties consider themselves the right one and the other one wrong
question

Superordinate goals
answer

Definition: Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation Example: If two people who don’t get along get assigned to be partners for a project, they have to put that aside and work together to get a good grade
question

Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension (GRIT)
answer

Definition: A strategy designed to decrease international tensions Remember: Grit = The passionate pursuit of long-term goals and the commitment to fulfill a mission with unswerving determination no matter what the obstacles → Decreasing international tensions involves working together no matter the obstacles