Unit 1: Introduction to Speech Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy
The study of the structure of organisms and the relation of their parts.

Physiology
The study of the function of living organisms or their parts.

What is the difference between anatomy and physiology?
Anatomy is the study of the structure of an organism, whereas physiology is the study of how the structures function together.

Anatomy Specializations
Anatomy is a vast discipline that includes large things like bones and very small things like cells and cell organelles, there are a number of specializations.

Systemic Anatomy
Considers the body as a composition of a number of distinct systems, each with relatively homogeneous tissue and/or function. (Different systems of the body, divided up by their function)

Regional/Topographical Anatomy
Considers the relations between structures that are within a region of the body. (Looks at regions of the body, such as upper extremities, and what is there)

Clinical/Applied Anatomy
Concerned with the study of anatomy that has relevance for practical sciences such as medicine, surgery, or speech pathology. (Uses background knowledge of anatomy for determining normalcy of patients/clients)

Radiologic Anatomy
The study of anatomy revealed through imaging techniques. Imaging techniques allow the investigation of non-visible parts without harming or killing the organism. (Examining the body using radiology)

Microscopic Anatomy
Concerned with the structure that cannot be seen with the naked eye (in contrast to gross or large anatomy). This will include cytology and histology. This involves the use of microscopes of various types (light, polarized light, electron, etc.)

Cytology
The study of cells and their parts.

Histology
The study of body tissues.

Developmental Anatomy/Embryology
Deals with the growth and development of an organism. (Anatomy is dynamic and changes during development)

Pathologic Anatomy/Pathology
Concerned with the effect of disease on anatomical structure. These may include gross or microscopic changes.

Comparative Anatomy
The study of structure across more than one species. (Compare the tongue of a human to the tongue of a frog)

Anthropological Anatomy
The anatomical study of persons in history or across race and ethnicity. (Anatomical changes over time.

Physiology Disciplines
Physiology is a broad discipline, which includes many specializations.

Cellular Physiology
How cells operate.

Systems Physiology
How do systems work.

Pathophysiology
What happens when things go wrong.

Physiology of Larger Bodily Systems
Neurophysiology, respiratory physiology

Why is it helpful to study anatomy and physiology together?
Because we want to understand why people and their bodies operate, behave, and react the way they do. To understand how, when and to what degree we can move behaviors from some disordered, undesirable state, to some ordered state, more easily tolerated by clients and their communities.

Why is it important to have a coordinate system for the purpose of anatomical description?
We learn anatomical terminology so that we can communicate with other health professionals. A coordinate system is important to have because it allows us to describe where body parts are, and parts of parts, are with respect to one another.

Spherical/Polar Coordinate System
The position of an object is defined in terms of a distance from a central point or origin, and 2 angels of inclination or deflection. (Two angles and a length).

Cartesian Coordinate System
The position of any object is defined in terms of 3 displacements from some point of origin, along mutually orthogonal axes. (Like using x, y, and z coordinates.

How are the spherical and Cartesian coordinate systems similar.
Both systems are 3 dimensional reference-frame options.

What is the standard anatomical position of the body?
Body erect; face, chest, palms forward.

What are the three anatomical planes used to “slice” the body?
Mid-Sagittal, Frontal (Coronal), Transverse (Horizontal)

Sagittal Plane
Divides the body into right (dextral) and left (sinistral) halves.

Mid-Sagittal Plane
Refers to a specific plan, which is the midline between the right and left.

Frontal (Coronal) Plane
Divides the body into the front (anterior) and the back (posterior) parts.

Transverse (Horizontal) Plane
Divides the body into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) parts.

Ventral (Anterior)
Toward the front of the body.

Dorsal (Posterior)
Away from the front of the body.

Superficial (external)
Toward the surface of the body.

Deep (Internal)
Away from the surface.

Superior
Upper

Inferior
Lower

Rostral (Cranial)
Toward the head.

Caudal
Toward the tail.

Medial
Toward the axis or midline.

Lateral
Away from the axis or midline.

Proximal
Toward the body or toward the root of a free extremity.

Distal
Away from the body or away from the root of a free extremity.

Central
Pertaining to or situated in the center.

Peripheral
Toward the outward surface or part.

Dextral
Right

Sinistral
Left

What are the levels of organization from atoms to the organism?
(Aunt Crystal Took Out Some Oreos)
Atoms, Cells, Tissues, Organs, Systems, Organism

Atoms, Molecules, Ions
Atoms are the building blocks of matter; they are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Atoms bind together into molecules. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions are the building blocks of cells.

Cells
The smallest biological unit that is considered living. Very small and numerous. Cells are living and have a life span. Self-contained unit, living, can reproduce, self-regulated, combines to make tissues.

Tissues
Cells and intercellular material combine to produce a functional arrangement, it is a tissue. Organization of cells.

What is the study of cells?
Cytology

What is the study of tissues?
Histology

What are the four main types of tissues?
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, and Nervous

Organs/Tissue Aggregates
When two or more tissues combine to produce a functional unit, it is termed an organ.

Systems
a system refers to a complex, organism-wide functional arrangement of organs/tissue aggregates.

Organisms
a functioning system of interdependent parts that make up a living thing/creature.

Epithelial Tissue
covers bodily tissue; has scarcity of intercellular material; the outside of the body is covered with epithelial tissue (skin)

What are the three types of epithelial tissue?
Epithelial proper (covers outside of body, skin), Endothelial (covers inner surface of body that is exposed to the environment, stomach, lungs), Mesothelial (covers body cavities, thoracic and abdominal cavities)

Connective Tissue
provides structural support for an organism; has a lot of intercellular material referred to as extracellular matrix.

What are types of connective tissue?
Loose connective tissue (areolar tissue, apipose tissue aka fat); dense connective tissue (tendons, ligaments, fascia); Special connective tissue (cartilage, bone); Vascular tissue (lymphatic tissue and blood)

Muscle Tissue
Tissue that has the capacity to generate force through contraction of tissue elements, aka contractile tissue.

What are the three categories of muscle tissue?
Striated, cardiac, smooth

Striated muscle
associated with voluntary movement

Smooth muscle
associated with involuntary movement

cardiac muscle
heart muscle

Nervous Tissue
specialized tissue designed to generate, propagate and transmit electrochemical signals, used for bodily communication

Skeletal system*
tissues – bone and cartilage
relevant for communication

articular system*
joints and ligaments
relevant for communication

Muscular system*
muscle and tendons
relevant for communication

Nervous System*
brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia, and sense organs
relevant for communication

Respiratory System*
air passages and lungs
relevant for communication

Digestive system*
digestive tract and associated glands and organs
relevant for communication

Cardiovascular System/Circulatory System*
heart, blood vessels, blood, and lymphatic system
relevant for communication

Reproductive system
genital tracts

Endocrine system
ductless glands of the body

urinary system
kidneys and urinary passages

Integumentary system
skin, nails, hair

What is the role of the circulatory system and its major function?
Circulates blood, provides oxygen to the body and gets rid of carbon dioxide; controls blood flow through the body; provide bodily fuel and gets rid of bodily waste

Artery
takes blood away from the heart; thick, firm walls that contain connective and smooth muscle

Arteriole
very small arteries

Capillaries/Capillary Beds
small microscopic vessels that communicate between small arteries (arteriole) and very small veins (venules)

Venule
very small veins

Veins
returns blood to heart; thinner with less connective and muscle tissue

Pulmonary Circuit
Right side of heart, transports oxygen depleted blood from body through the right side of the heart (R artium and R ventricle) to the lungs via the pulmonary arteries; carbon dioxide is removed and oxygen is diffused into the blood

Systemic Circuit
From the left atrium the now oxygen rich blood is sent to the left ventricle and is pumped out the aorta to be distributed to the capillaries of the entire body. Blood in the capillaries losses it’s oxygen to the surrounding tissues, picks up CO2 and is sent back to the right atrium.

Describe how blood makes its full circulation through the pulmonary and systemic circuits?
Left ventricle to systemic arterial system (arteries, carries O2 rich blood) to capillary bed to venous system (veins) to right atrium to right ventricle (to lungs to get new CO2 and get rid of CO2) to pulmonary artery to pulmonary capillary bed to pulmonary veins to left atrium to left ventricle

What are other circuits
renal and GI circuit

What are the two nervous cells
The neuron and glia

What is a neuron?
a nerve cell, function is communication of the nervous system

What is Glia?
considered a support cell, more plethoric than than neurons

What are the major types of glial cells?
Schwann Cells – provides myelin in the PNS
Oligodendrocytes – provides myelin in the CNS
Astrocytes – provides a physical blood-brain barrier

What are the functions of Glia?
Nervous System structural integrity; blood-brain barrier; janitorial services; myelination; neuronal migration and axon growth during development; possibly communication like neurons

What are the major types of a neuron?
Axon, axon terminal, myelin sheath, some/cell body, and dendrites.

What are the different types of morphology of neurons?
Bipolar, multipolar, unipolar

What is the organizational framework of the nervous system?
CNS – brain and spinal cord
PNS – (brain) cranial nerves, spinal nerves, autonomic nervous system (sympathetic system, parasympathetic system)

Ganglia
clusters of neuron cell bodies in the PNS

Nuclei/Nucleus
clusters of cell bodies in the CNS/spinal cord

Nerves
bundle of nerve fibers outside the CNS that has functional unity, bundled axons that form neural “cables” connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

Plexus
intermingling of nerves, a network of nerves

afferent neurons
carries sensory nerve impulses to the CNS

efferent neurons
carries sensory nerve impulses away form the CNS (exits)

Interneuron
a short nerve cell in the CNS that connects the nerve cells in a reflex arc, such as sensory nerve to a motor nerve

Sensory Nerves
transmits sensory information

Motor Nerves
information to muscle for motor movement

Mixed nerves
motor and sensory nerves bundled together

Somatic vs. Autonomic
Somatic = body, conscious voluntary behavior
Autonomic = unconscious, involuntary behavior, performs bodily functions

Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic
Sympathetic = alerting reactions, fight or flight
Parasympathetic – calming reactions

What are the different types of sensory neurons aka afferent neurons?
Mechanoreceptors, Thermoreceptors, Photoreceptors, Chemoreceptors

Mechanoreceptors
mechanical info to neural info, relay info about movement and where the body is in space

Thermoreceptors
temperature; signals temperature and its changes

Chemoreceptors
light, responds to light

Motor Neuron
a nerve cell (neuron) that conveys nerve impulses from the spinal cord or brainstem away from the CNS toward a muscle or gland, aka an efferent neuron

How does an efferent/motor neuron differ from other neurons?
It refers to motor fibers that conduct excitatory impulses out to striated muscle

Spinal Nerves
In PNS, 31 spinal nerves, nerves that leave or enter the spinal cord, has own # and letter corresponding to regions of the spin its from

Cranial Nerves
12 pairs of nerves rising from the brain

Cervical Nerves
C1-8

Thoracic Nerves
T1-12

Lumbar Nerves
L1-5

Sacral Nerves
S1-5

Coccygeal
Coccygeal nerve

Cranial Nerves
I – XII

Olfactory
I

Optic
II

Oculomotor
III

Trochlear
IV

Trigeminal*
V, speech, mixed nerve

Abducens
VI

Facial*
VII, speech, mixed nerve

Auditory*
VIII, hearing, sensory

Glossopharyngeal*
IX, speech, mixed nerve

Vagus*
X, speech, mixed nerve

Spinal/Accesory*
XI, speech, motor nerve

Hypoglossal*
XII, speech, motor nerve

Function of muscular system?
muscle is the motor that causes all movement within the body.

Striated muscle
voluntary, also known as skeletal or stripped

Smooth muscle
involuntary

Cardiac Muscle
heart muscle

Gross Structure of a Muscle
Meaty belly wrapped in a membrane (fascia) called epimysium, attached to bone or cartilage at each of the two ends by a tendon.

Muscle Belly
the meaty belly main part of a muscle

tendon
connective tissue attaching muscle to bone or cartilage

origin
least amount of mobility proximal, middle of the body

insertion
more mobile, distal, peripheral

line of action
geometric line drawn through a muscle’s points of origin and insertion

Contraction
muscle shortens in length, refers to the situation of a muscle, and the generation of force by a muscle

Isometric contraction
produce force, but no change in length

anisometric contraction
produce force and shortening of muscle length

agonist
muscle that causes a specific movement

antagonist
a muscle that opposes a contraction of another muscle

synergist
A muscle in conjunction with another muscle to aid in movement, multiple muscle that share a similar action

sarcomere
a segment of myofibril in striated muscle

myofibril
small filaments that makes up muscle fibers

muscle fiber
subdivision of the fasciculus, wrapped in endomysium

fascicle
muscle belly separates into bundles of fibers that are wrapped in perimysium membrane

belly
the muscle itself, covered in the epimysium membrane

sliding filament theory
theory stating that a myofibril contracts by the actin and myosin filaments sliding over each other.

Length-tension relationship
the relationship between the amount of tension generated by a muscle dependent on how stretched or contracted it was before it was stimulated

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