In 1997, Pepsi-Cola, whose chief competitor is Coca-Cola, announced its decision to restrain its international marketing efforts citing the difficulty in sustaining international markets. The decision came after the difficulties it encountered marketing locally specially in South Africa. Beverage Industry (1998) relates that Pepsi instead employed “limited global” approach which entails focusing on some key markets while choosing hold back on others.
Though Pepsi eventually had to cede its markets in Argentina in Venezuela and Argentina, the strategy they employed allowed them to gain significantly in the markets of Brazil, Russia and Norway (cited by Johansson, 2001). The nucleus of this strategy of Pepsi-Cola employed segmentation of the vast global market where it had the greatest advantages instead of focusing on the global market as a whole. Segmentation is defined by Koetler (1998) as a process of selecting a portion of the population on the basis of a special set of characteristics.
Cultural segmentation then implies the selection of a portion of the population based on a culturally based specification that identifies a subgroup. Applying the knowledge of cultural subgroups and segmentation. As of to 2001, Australia the local Muslim population census at 280,000 individuals. The demand for Halal food products in the
In addition to the citizens and permanent residents, Australia has also become popular destination for foreign students, tourists and other short-term visitors from Muslim countries specially those neighbouring it like Malaysia and Indonesia. Halal food is expected to grow solidly as a niche market for Australia (Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs, 2004) To develop this market, the Australian government created programs to orient existing food and agricultural industries to the Halal Accreditation Process by approved Islamic organisations.
In 2002 alone, various halal lamb and mutton exports to Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Malaysia, Saudi, Arabia, United Arab Emirates and other Middle East countries. The industry produced for the consumer 40,000 tonnes valued over 330 million dollars. Australia’s consideration of the culture that stems from the religion of Islam and its gaining approval from related Islamic councils has allowed it to cater to Muslims locally and abroad.
Without identifying the distinct needs of this segment and formulating corresponding programs to establish Australia’s position in the halal food industry would not have been able to create the niche it has with the market today. When Richard Ash, General Manager of “Macquarie Bank’s China Housing Investment Funds”, he was told that that it was important to own your own house in China, where men now outnumbered women, to attract a girlfriend and wife. This prompted Macquarie Bank’s interest in the housing market in China .
One of the primary reasons that China was targeted was because the company already had significant experience in dealing with Chinese customers. They identified as the most essential to improve in order to succeed in China was brand recognition. The company wanted to capitalize on its track record in investment market is based upon a proven track in Australia and the establishment of close relationships with investors. To raise the capital for its operations, Macquarie intends to have a mixture of currencies to distribute the danger.
The technique was to maximize firstly the Australian investment, ten from Asia, USA, and Europe. The minimum investment in the “China Housing Investment Fund” (CHIF) is $US was 500,000, and in order to get people to make such an investment it became crucial to gain confidence and establish trust directly. Keeping in mind that the Chinese were known to be more comfortable dealing with other Chinese businessmen or those already familiar with the culture, all members of the team from Sydney could be from China or were therefore familiar with Chinese business culture and the services that are vital.
Recognizing the language barriers existing, Macquarie ran extensive newspaper advertisements in both English and Chinese newspapers, prepared and circulted English and Chinese Memorandum and held seminars for potential Chinese investors were also held (Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs, 2002). Was the strategy successful? As of 1998 it had approximately 60% Australian investors, 30% Asian and 10% American. These figures exceeded company targets as well as whether the Asian Economic Crisis of the 90’s.