Understanding Of Globalisation And The City Sociology Essay Example
Understanding Of Globalisation And The City Sociology Essay Example

Understanding Of Globalisation And The City Sociology Essay Example

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  • Pages: 9 (2224 words)
  • Published: August 27, 2017
  • Type: Essay
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The aim of this essay is to elucidate the evolving rights of women, particularly in 19th and 20th century Britain. The author focuses on women's migration experiences and their adjustment to new environments. Additionally, the impact of urban areas on females is explored, with a specific emphasis placed on streets' role in city life. Streets are characterized as a space for movement rather than habitation, linking lifeworlds with systems. Furthermore, the street is regarded as an area that encourages fresh urban lifestyles and reclaims it from being solely functional. When relocating to settle in a new city compared to a brief visit, the experience can be vastly different. Factors such as scarcity, floods, wars, illness and economic instability have led people to migrate from one location to another. Cities serve as meeting places where newcomers can start afresh after l


eaving behind their previous lives elsewhere. There are two types of individuals: those who were born and raised in a certain place and those who move there without familiarity with their surroundings. Overcrowding has occurred in cities due to individuals relocating from rural areas or suburbs seeking work at expanding industries like mills, mines, shipyards or steel mills. In 1847 alone approximately eighty million people migrated from Ireland into Liverpool or other regions within Britain before eventually moving onto American cities such as New York City or Chicago among others.According to McDowell in Allen, Massey and Pryke's (1999) work, rural populations moved to Third World cities during the 20th century. This led to overcrowding while people from Third World countries migrated to First World countries. Large cities were previously located mainly in the West but no

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popular Third World cities, such as Mexico City, Mumbai, Chicago, Seoul, Sao Paulo, Shanghai and Beijing are prominent according to Massey (1999). Despite migration trends economic and political power remains with advanced First World nations. Therefore former settlements have been dismantled resulting in diverse populations within First World countries such as migrants from China, Korea,Vietnam,Greece,Turkey,and Portugal who joined earlier migrants from Ireland and Eastern Europe.

Urbanization has become important due to reasons including droughts,floods,and religious intolerance.However,the process is increasingly complex by the end of the century due to fluidity.Improved transportation facilities have made travel easier but poverty,fear of persecution,and immigration controls prevent many individuals from leaving their new homes.Technology advances enable people to maintain cultural connections between their culture and place of residence.According to McDowell in Allen, Massey and Pryke (1999), communication technologies like radio, television, and the internet have enabled people living abroad to stay connected with their home country. A diverse group of individuals with varying preferences, opinions, races, and religions now coexist in the same society worldwide. This includes residents from both first and third world countries living in Western nations and other parts of the globe. Despite location differences, all individuals face similar situations in life. For example, women from New York City, London, and Mumbai used to prefer working from home but eventually shifted towards working outside. Men of various nationalities also work together towards global goals (McDowell 1999). During the early 19th century, cities and towns had dreadful living conditions with unclean areas that were often overcrowded. Individuals were left to dispose of sewage right outside their homes which were only cleaned sporadically. Only elite members of society enjoyed lavish

interiors with amenities such as flushing toilets while impoverished households shared facilities resulting in frequent disease outbreaks with low life expectancy rates including high infant mortality rates.Two cholera outbreaks took place in England during 1831-1832 and 1848-49; however actions were taken against these unsanitary conditions.From the seventeenth century onwards, London's population was split into two categories: the East and the West. The East was home to a working-class and migrant population, particularly Irish immigrants, while the Western region became an attraction for nobility and prosperous entrepreneurs who gradually moved into areas like St. James and Piccadilly starting from Soho and Covent Garden (Rendell in Fyfe, 1998; George, 1992; Smeeton in George, 1992). During the eighteenth century, Improvement Commissioners such as Pavement Commissioners were established to clean and pave streets of towns and cities. They sometimes even provided oil lamps for lighting. However, England was divided into parishes at that time so these commissioners only had jurisdiction over certain ones. As urban populations grew, people began constructing houses outside of these parishes which resulted in dirty streets and organic waste accumulation used as fertilizer. An important improvement during this period was gas lighting introduced in Pall Mall in 1807 but it wasn't until late nineteenth century when sewers were constructed along with piped water being supplied to most urban areas that living conditions improved significantly.According to Rendell in Fyfe, 1998, London's nightlife during the 19th century was infamous for its association with prostitution and crime. This lifestyle played a role in determining the social status of both men and women. The relationship between cities and adult females has been highly regulated and controlled for a long

time according to Marsh (1985) and Marsh and Nunn (1989). Middle-class women were expected to embody passivity while working-class women were seen as unfeminine as stated by Wilson (2001). Women were not able to experience urban life in the same way as men; however today's working-class women prioritize safety and comfort rather than femininity. Femme identity is linked to spatial location and movement instead of using one's body for financial gain according to Rendell in Fyfe, 1998. Society has placed expectations on women which have been resisted by transforming into masculine objects of desire or becoming literal objects themselves says Wilson (2001). Urban public spaces are accessed differently by men and women but news headlines often feature women as victims of physical or mental abuse causing fear among them about their safety in cities. Invasion of privacy, inappropriate gestures, personal remarks are some daily issues that affect women specifically.The limitation of femininity stems from experiences of violence or fear, which leads to older women avoiding certain areas in cities for safety reasons. However, statistics suggest that young men are more likely to be victims of urban violence in public spaces. Feminist critics argue that the assumption that women require protection is a major reason why they avoid restricted areas in cities. Women's dependence on men and societal beliefs about male superiority limit their freedom to use public spaces without restraint (Pateman, 1988). Blaming women for rape or harassment only exacerbates this issue further as it implies that these crimes are somehow provoked by female behavior. The British Government has imposed curfews on women under the guise of ensuring their protection, thereby punishing them instead of holding

attackers accountable. This approach has ironically given men greater freedom to occupy public spaces while making feminist movements stronger (Smith, 1989).According to McDowell in Allen, Massey and Pryke (1999), a societal divide exists among adult females based on their worth and sexual morality, with women's spatial location often used to define their identity. This division was exemplified in the 1970 Leeds case of the 'Yorkshire Ripper', where police mistakenly assumed that all victims were prostitutes due to their public presence. In cities like Paris and London, however, societal changes have occurred for women, with some prostitutes attaining wealth and respect due to their connections with elites (Wiesner, 1993). Despite this progress, there remains a threat in cities where female bodies are accessible and can blur the line between public and private lives.

According to Rendell in Fyfe (1998), female bodies were viewed as objects of display and consumption, leading all women in urban spaces to be associated with prostitution and lack of morals. This perpetuates negative stereotypes. In the past century though many women left rural areas for cities where they joined men in industries/workplaces; today many are employed with economic independence enabling them to support themselves socially(McDowell in Allen). Griselda Pollock (1988) argued that while some women managed entry into masculine areas of the city middle-class ones did not have access.Wolff (1985) argues that society was saturated with the ideology of women's place being in the home, resulting in the private domain becoming a male-dominated territory. Despite feminists and Victorians attempting to claim it as a feminine workplace, Wilson (2001) suggests that domestic spaces were designed for men's convenience rather than women's. Meanwhile, Wolff asserts

that during the late 19th century, women were entirely disregarded within the public sphere. This is exemplified by experiences such as namelessness in the city and walking without disturbance- which were exclusively male experiences observed by George Simmel, Baudelaire, and Walter Benjamin. By this time, middle-class women were confined to an idealized private sphere but barred from participating in work, city life or socializing at bars and cafes. Nevertheless, limited public engagement became available for them towards the end of the 19th century through shopping as department stores and consumer culture slowly opened up avenues for their participation. However, despite this newfound freedom of movement within public spaces like shops- modernity's literature continued to ignore shopping. Janet Wolff notes how these observations on women were made from a purely male perspective throughout history.According to Wolff, women gained independence by the end of the 19th century and were able to enjoy leisure activities such as shopping without being viewed as prostitutes. Wilson (2001) argues that societal beliefs consider adult females who are harassed or attacked in public spaces as not belonging in their "place". Similarly, Veblen (1957) believes that middle-class women are seen as vehicles for conspicuous consumption, representing their husband's wealth through clothing and appearance. Despite this, Western women experienced greater liberation than those in other parts of the world during this time period. Although patriarchal family structures still prevail today with men seen as breadwinners and women as homemakers, urban areas have enabled some women to achieve greater freedom. In areas like St., if men were portrayed similarly to women as consumers, there would be a change in behavior. In the past, James and

Bond Street were dominated by men but with consumer capitalism on the rise, women began venturing out of their homes to become both workers and consumers. While class and ethnicity impacted opportunities in cities during the 19th and 20th centuries, city life remains an important means of bridging social divides. Elizabeth Wilson suggests that feminist politics was promoted due to anonymity and excitement found within cities during these times.In the mid-1800s, London experienced a rise in working women as a social issue due to the availability of white-collar jobs. As a result, there was an increasing demand for comfortable feeding places catering specifically to unaccompanied women shoppers. While such establishments were initially scarce, they grew in number towards the end of the 19th century and many restaurants and coffeehouses began exclusively employing women workers. Even special arrangements were made at Bishopsgate's Crosby Hall to ensure their comfort (Thorne, 1980:40). Some restaurants even specifically catered to women who worked (Wilson, 2001).
Janet Wolff, Griselda Pollock and Elizabeth Wilson argue that in the 19th century metropolis, women were oppressed and exploited. However, Wilson opposes this idea by proposing that women held value as workers and that urban space could either exclude or include them depending on its gender dynamics (Wilson, 2001:83).
Moving into the twentieth century brought about new opportunities for women from diverse backgrounds within the city (McDowell in Allen et al.,1999). Yet it is important to consider whether these opportunities truly made London safer for them or not.In the earlier part of the 20th century, Gwen John faced challenges as a painter. Despite progress over time, recognition for female painters in Paris remains elusive compared to their

male counterparts (Wolff, 1994). It is uncertain whether women who stroll around the city observing can be classified as Flaneur without demonstrating certain characteristics (Wilson, 2001). Men still objectify young and attractive women while older or poorly dressed women tend to blend in and become invisible. However, dressing like men and exploring different parts of the city are now activities that both genders enjoy. Jeanne Mammen from Berlin embodies this shift: "Small...dressed in an old raincoat with a beret on her short hair and a pencil in one hand and a cigarette in the other...Mammen enjoyed the freedom to be overlooked" (Lutgens, 1997:92). In this gloomy urban setting, bravery from both genders is at stake (Wilson, 2001). The women's movement took place between 1848 to 1920 allowing adult females mentioned in traditional American history texts to question their invisibility and aspire towards greater opportunities (https://www.infoplease.com/spot/womensintro1.html).Although women in some countries such as the Middle East are still required to be accompanied by a male companion and covered up from head to toe when leaving their homes, their roles have evolved beyond traditional domestic duties. Nowadays, they have access to white-collar jobs where they receive equal pay compared to men. Despite this progress, women are often stigmatized for being out alone at night and deemed as prostitutes. Living in cities poses challenges for both genders but women's responsibilities have increased significantly in modern times compared to earlier years when they were confined solely to domestic work while men provided for the family. However, with women now working not only within their homes but also across various industries, they have become equal breadwinners while remaining true to themselves

as women.

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