U3 Biochemistry: Atoms, Compounds, & Elements. Chemical bonds. – Flashcards

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atoms
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the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
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iron
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used for energy processing and transporting oxygen in blood
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protons
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the positively charged particles of the atom located in the nucleus
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electrons
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the negatively charged particles of the atom located in the outer electron cloud
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neutrons
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the neutral particles located in the nucleus of the atom
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elements
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a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances
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isotopes
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atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
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compound
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a pure substance formed when two or more different elements combine in a fixed ratio
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molecule
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a compound in which the atoms are held together by covalent bonds
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covalent bonds
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a chemical bond that forms when atoms share electrons
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ionic bonds
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a chemical bond that forms when atoms lose or gain electrons
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iodine
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used in a hormone produced by thyroid gland
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fluorine
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used in fluoride to prevent tooth decay
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list three trace elements
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iodine, iron, flourine
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What make up 96% of human body weight
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hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon
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atomic number
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number of protons in an atom
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mass number
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sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus
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radioactive isotopes
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when a nucleus is unstable and decays spontaneously
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What is involved in the chemical activity of an atom?
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Only electrons
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True or false: the farther an electron is from the positively charged nucleus, the greater the energy.
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true
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each orbital can hold a max of __ electrons
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two
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What determines the chemical properties of an atom?
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the number of electrons in the valence shell
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define covalent bond
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two or more atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons to form molecules
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what is electronegativity
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different attractions for shared electrons
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define nonpolar covalent
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when atoms have the same electronegativity
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what are molecules called when atoms have different electronegativity?
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polar covalent
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define ionic bonds
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the attraction between ions with opposite charges
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define ions
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when electronegativity is unequal, electrons can be stripped to charged particles called ions
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cations
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positive because they lose electrons
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anions
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negative because they gain electrons
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What is the weakest bond?
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hydrogen bond
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where do hydrogen bonds occur?
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in polar covalent molecules resulting in a partial positive for hydrogen
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what are positively charged hydrogen attracted to?
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partially negative atom of another molecule
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What are reactants converted into during chemical reactions?
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products
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What is conserved in a chemical reaction?
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matter
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define electron shells
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the energy levels that electrons move around the nucleus in
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question
atoms
answer
the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
question
iron
answer
used for energy processing and transporting oxygen in blood
question
protons
answer
the positively charged particles of the atom located in the nucleus
question
electrons
answer
the negatively charged particles of the atom located in the outer electron cloud
question
neutrons
answer
the neutral particles located in the nucleus of the atom
question
elements
answer
a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances
question
isotopes
answer
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
question
compound
answer
a pure substance formed when two or more different elements combine in a fixed ratio
question
molecule
answer
a compound in which the atoms are held together by covalent bonds
question
covalent bonds
answer
a chemical bond that forms when atoms share electrons
question
ionic bonds
answer
a chemical bond that forms when atoms lose or gain electrons
question
iodine
answer
used in a hormone produced by thyroid gland
question
fluorine
answer
used in fluoride to prevent tooth decay
question
list three trace elements
answer
iodine, iron, flourine
question
What make up 96% of human body weight
answer
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon
question
atomic number
answer
number of protons in an atom
question
mass number
answer
sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus
question
radioactive isotopes
answer
when a nucleus is unstable and decays spontaneously
question
What is involved in the chemical activity of an atom?
answer
Only electrons
question
True or false: the farther an electron is from the positively charged nucleus, the greater the energy.
answer
true
question
each orbital can hold a max of __ electrons
answer
two
question
What determines the chemical properties of an atom?
answer
the number of electrons in the valence shell
question
define covalent bond
answer
two or more atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons to form molecules
question
what is electronegativity
answer
different attractions for shared electrons
question
define nonpolar covalent
answer
when atoms have the same electronegativity
question
what are molecules called when atoms have different electronegativity?
answer
polar covalent
question
define ionic bonds
answer
the attraction between ions with opposite charges
question
define ions
answer
when electronegativity is unequal, electrons can be stripped to charged particles called ions
question
cations
answer
positive because they lose electrons
question
anions
answer
negative because they gain electrons
question
What is the weakest bond?
answer
hydrogen bond
question
where do hydrogen bonds occur?
answer
in polar covalent molecules resulting in a partial positive for hydrogen
question
what are positively charged hydrogen attracted to?
answer
partially negative atom of another molecule
question
What are reactants converted into during chemical reactions?
answer
products
question
What is conserved in a chemical reaction?
answer
matter
question
define electron shells
answer
the energy levels that electrons move around the nucleus in