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U.S. History (Chapters 5-8)

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When the British attacked New York in late August 1776?
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the American army was fortunate to escape into New Jersey
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In August 1776, General Washington had 28,000 men under his command. By December, he had:
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3,000
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Thomas Paine’s The American Crisis
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bolstered American morale
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On Christmas night 1776, Washington crossed the Delaware to defeat the:
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Hessians
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In late December 1776, George Washington was able to reverse American fortunes by
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winning battles at Trenton and Princeton
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Washington soon learned that the best hope of beating the British was:
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a long war of attrition
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The Patriot militia
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frustrated Washington with their lack of discipline
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Americans won a tremendous victory in October 1777 with the surrender at Saratoga of:
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Johnny Burgoyne
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A problem with the Spanish entry into the Revolution against Britain was that Spain:
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Entered as an ally of France rather than of the United States
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In its winter camp at Valley Forge, Washington’s army was decimated by all of the following EXCEPT:
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Enemy Attack
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The phrase “critical period” refers to:
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America under the Articles of Confederation
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Which one of the following gave the Confederation government the most trouble?
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Finances
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The Newburgh Conspiracy involved:
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a military threat to enlarge congressional powers
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Under the Articles of Confederation western lands would be:
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owned by the national government
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The United States departed from the colonial policies of Great Britain by:
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promising equal statehood to all unsettled western territory
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In the lands south of the Ohio River:
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Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia temporarily kept their titles to the western lands
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An important new development came in the mid-1780s, when the United States opened trade with:
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China
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America contended with Spain over:
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freedom to navigate the Mississippi
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The movement for states to issue paper money in the 1780s was led by:
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farmers
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Shays’s Rebellion was led by:
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indebted farmers
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Shays’s Rebellion broke out in:
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western Massachusetts
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The Constitutional Convention met in:
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Philadelphia
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The convention, which assembled in May 1787, was supposed to:
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revise the Articles of Confederation
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The convention’s most gifted political philosopher and the man who emerged as its central figure was:
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James Madison
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Madison’s Virginia Plan:
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would create a two-house Congress
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The Great Compromise originated from the delegation.
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Connecticut
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The Great Compromise:
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settled the question of congressional representation
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The Constitution addressed slavery by:
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stating that the African slave trade could not be banned before 1808
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On the question of women’s rights, the proposed Constitution:
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said nothing
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In regard to citizenship, the Constitution:
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gave Congress authority over naturalization
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Under the proposed constitution, members of the Senate would:
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be chosen by state legislatures
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Most of The Federalist essays were written by:
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Alexander Hamilton
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Federalist Number 10 explains how a republic can:
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be successful in a large, diverse society
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In early 1789, the new Congress gathered in the national capital, which was:
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New York City
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The Bill of Rights did all of the following EXCEPT:
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settle all questions about federal versus state authority
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In regard to religion, the Constitution:
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prevents Congress from establishing an official religion
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In regard to state debts, Hamilton proposed that:
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suggested funding the debt by selling government bonds, and further proposed that state debts be assumed by the national government.
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The national bank proposed by Hamilton:
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would provide a stable national currency
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Washington’s secretary of state was:
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Thomas Jefferson
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The Tenth Amendment to the Constitution:
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said that powers not specifically given to the national government remained with the states or the people
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When Britain and France went to war in 1793, the United States:
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expressed neutrality, warning Americans not to aid either side
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In foreign affairs, Americans became deeply divided in the 1790s over:
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the French Revolution
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Washington’s farewell address:
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He warned against the dangers of political parties and foreign alliances.
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Under President Adams, a war between the United States and France:
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was an undeclared naval conflict
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The Alien Act of 1798:
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was aimed especially at French and Irish Republicans
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Just before he left office, Adams:
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he made the mid-night appointments which led to Marbury v. martin
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Between 1800 and 1840, the nation’s most dramatic population expansion occurred:
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west of the Appalachians
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In the early nineteenth century, the fastest growing segment of the population was:
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free blacks
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Jefferson’s inauguration was notable for:
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its being the first in Washington, D.C.
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In the case of Marbury v. Madison, the Supreme Court:
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declared a federal law unconstitutional
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In the case of Marbury v. Madison, the Supreme Court chief justice who established the principle of judicial review was:
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John Marshall
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Thomas Jefferson believed that a large federal debt would:
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Mean high taxes and public corruption
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In the early 1800s, the United States engaged in a naval conflict with:
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North African pirates
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The Louisiana Purchase was made possible by:
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Napoléon’s disastrous setback in Haiti
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The Louisiana Purchase was a problem for Jefferson because:
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he believed that the Constitution did not give authority to acquire new land
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Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark to:
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map and explore well beyond the Mississippi
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The 1804 presidential election resulted in:
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Jefferson’s landslide reelection
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Aaron Burr’s conspiracy:
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aimed to give him a private western empire
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Aaron Burr’s treason trial featured:
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John Marshall’s insistence upon a rigid definition of treason
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In the Battle of Tippecanoe:
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the hope of an Indian confederation to protect their hunting grounds was ended
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To President Jefferson, one major incentive to purchase Louisiana was to:
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secure American access to the Mississippi River and New Orleans
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The most notable aspect of the British assault upon Baltimore was:
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its inspiration for the eventual national anthem
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The Treaty of Ghent:
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ended the war