Topic 4: Cell Division

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Mitosis
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The type of cell division in which daughter cells receive the exact chromosome and genetic makeup of the parent cell; occurs during growth and repair.
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Nuclei
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The cell organelles containing most of the genetic material of the cell; the collection of nerve cell bodies within the central nervous system; the center of an atom consisting of protons and neutrons.
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Eukaryotic Cell
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A cell that possesses a nucleus and the other membranous organelles characteristic of complex cells.
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Chromosomes
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A rodlike structure in the nucleus seen during cell division; contains the hereditary units, or genes.
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Sister Chromatid
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One of two genetically identical chromosomal units that are the result of DNA replication and are attached to each other at the centromere.
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Centromere
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The constricted region of a chromosome where sister chromatids are attached to one another and where the chromosomes attach to a spindle fiber.
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Prophase (Prep)
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The DNA condenses and the nucleus breaks down.
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Microtubule
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An organelle composed of 13 rows of globular proteins; found in multiple units within other organelles, such as the centriole, cilia, flagella, as well as spindle fibers.
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Centriole
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A short, cylindrical organelle in animal cells that contains microtubules in a 9 1 0 pattern; present in a centrosome and associated with the formation of basal bodies.
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Metaphase (Middle)
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The chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell.
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Telophase (Far)
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The nucleus reforms and the DNA loosens; this is the last stage.
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Sexual Reproduction
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Reproduction that occurs through fusion of two gametes.
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What are the three reasons that cells typically divide?
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Get bigger. Repair. Reproduction.
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What is the longest phase of the cell cycle?
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Interphase
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What happens during G1?
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Growth
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How does a duplicated strand of DNA end up being identical to the original strand?
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Splits DNA in half and adds nucleotides.
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What is the last stage of interphase?
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G2
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In mitosis, the goal is to get cells that are gentically _________. That is, we want to go 2N–>2N (diploid to diploid).
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Identical
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Anaphase (Away)
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The chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell.
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What is the difference between plant and animal telophase/cytokinesis?
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Plant cells have a cell wall, animal cells lack a cell wall.
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What does meiosis do to the number of chromosomes?
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Cuts them in half.
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Meiosis goes from 2N–>___N, or from diploid —->_______.
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1N, haploid
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What is crossing over?
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The exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes.
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When does crossing over happen?
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Prophase I
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What is the idea of independent assortment?
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The formation of random combinationsof chromosomes.
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Nondisjunction
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When chromosomes fail to separate properly.
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What are two results of nondisjunction?
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Downs syndrome Patau syndrome

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