They Say I Say Techniques

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State own ideas as response to others
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\”They say…., I say….\” – enter conversation so that you are responding, gives argument context \”Some say…. In fact, ……\” \”In recent discussions of …. On the one hand…., on the other hand….\”
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Start with What Others Are Saying
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explain what you are responding to, keeps audience engaged \”Most people would say…., but….\” \”A number of educators have suggested….\”
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Introducing Standard Views
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\”Americans today believe that…\” \”Many people assume that…\”
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Making what they say something you say
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\”I used to believe that…\” \”I cannot help thinking that….\” present views as own
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Introducing something implied
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summarize point that is not directly stated \”Although none of them have ever directly said….\” \”An implication of the treatment is that….\”
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On the one hand
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suspend own beliefs and put self in someone else’s shoes summarize other views in terms of own must fit paper’s larger agenda
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Signal Verbs
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\”She demonstrates that….\” – argue – asserts – believes – supports – contends
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Frame Quotations
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\”According to X…\” \”X disagrees when she writes…\” use quotation sandwich \”In other words…\” \”X’s point is that…\”
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Blend author’s words with own
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give writer’s words own spin \”X’s ovservations ring true to me because…\”
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Disagreeing With Reasons
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\”I think X is mistaken because
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Agree With a Difference
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even if agreeing, bring something new and fresh in \”I agree that…. \” \”X is surely right about…. because recent studies have shown….\” \”I agree that…., a point that needs emphasizing….\”
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Agreeing and Disagreeing Simultaneously
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\”Although I agree up to a point, I still insist ….\” \”Though I concede that…., I still insist that…..\”
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Signaling Who is Saying What
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\”X argues…\” \”According to both X and Y….\” \”X’s assertion that…\”
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Embedding Voice Markers
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\”X overlooks an important point that….\” \”My own view is that what X calls…. is in fact…..\”
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Anticipating Objections
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\”Some readers might challenge my view that….\” \”I would like to raise some objections commonly found in….\”
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Naming Naysayers
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\”Many feminists would object that…\” \”Bioligists would dispute my flame that….\”
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Introducing Objections Informally
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\”Yes it is always true that…\”
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Represent Objections Fairly
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stay with objection for several sentences or paragraphs
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Answer Objections
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\”Although I grant that…, I still maintain that….\” \”While it is true that…, it does not necessarily follow that….\”
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Indicating Who Cares
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\”Recent studies shed new light on…., which previous studies have not addressed\” \”Researchers have long assumed that….\”
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Establishing Why Claims Matter
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\”Ultimately what is at stake here is….\” \”These findings have important consequences for the broader domain of….\”
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Use Transitions
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(pg. 105) addition, example, elaboration, comparison, contrast, cause and effect, concession, conclusion
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Pointing Words
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point back to concept in previous sentence this, these, that, their, such, his her, she, it
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Repeat Key Terms and Phrases
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MLK Jr. – \”Letter from a Birmingham Jail\” – statement and criticism – terms repeated later in essay
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Repeat With a Difference
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in other words, to put it another way, furthermore
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Mixing Styles
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Academic and Colloquial Consider audience and purpose
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Metacommentary
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\”In other words,…\” \”What … really means is…\” \”My point is that….\”
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Indicating That Claim is Important
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\”But above all,….\” \”Incidentally….\”

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