Theory of reasoned Action and Theory of Planned behavior

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Theories of Reasoned action and planned behavior
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Looks at the relationship between individuals attitudes and behavior. Focused on Rational, cognitive decision making processes. Intention is necessary for behavior change to occur.
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Theory of reasoned action
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-Designed to help explain the volitional behavior (behavior that is under the control of the person) -The TRA starts from the idea that the person’s intention is the primary determinant of behavior, viewed as a function of two determinates. (persons attitude towards doing something and the perception of social pressure to preform.)
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History of TRA and TPB
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-Originated in the field of social psychology. -The concept of \”attitude\” as a trigger and predictor of human behavior. -Value-expectancy theory
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Value Expectancy Theory
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-Behavior is a function of the expectancies one has and the value of the goal toward which one is working. -It predicts that, when more than one behavior is possible, the behavior chosen will be the one with the largest combination of expected success and value. -Expectancy-value theories hold that people are goal-oriented beings. -BUT: there are other factors that influence the process. (social and psychological origins of need.
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Value Expectancy theory 2
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-It suggests that \”people orient themselves to the world according to their expectations and evaluations. -Behavior, behavioral intentions or attitudes are seen as a function of expectancy: the perceived probability that an object possesses a particular attribute or that a behavior will have a particular consequence. and Evaluation: the degree of affect, positive or negative, toward an attribute or behavioral outcome.
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Value expectancy theory 3
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Expectancy: person believes that increased effort leads to improved performance. -instrumentality: person believes that improved performance leads to a certain outcome or reward. -Outcomes: person values that reward or outcome.
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Assumptions of the TRA Model
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-Human behavior is under the voluntary control of the individual. -People think about the consequences and implications of their actions. People are rational. -Intention must be highly correlated with behavior.
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Components of the TRA Model
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-Behavior is a function of 2 factors: Attitude toward a specific action Subjective norms regarding that action. -Attitudes toward a specific action: ~What will happen if I engage in this behavior? ~Is this outcome desirable or undesirable. ~Represent the individuals positive or negative evaluation of performing a behavior. ~It is a function of behavioral beliefs. -Subjective norms regarding that action: ~Motivation to comply: Do I want to do what they tell me? How much? why? ~They reflect the perceived social pressure that individuals feel to perform or not perform a particular behavior. ~Function of: the normative beliefs (others expectations) and individuals motivation to comply with the others expectations.
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Theory of Reasoned Action
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-Intention: Most proximal determinant of behavior and reflected in a persons willingness and amount of effort exerted to perform that behavior. ~The stronger a persons intention to perform a behaviors the more likely he or she will be to engage in that behavior. ~The longer the time between intention and behavior, the less likely the behavior will be performed. -Attitude: An individuals positive or negative evaluations about performing a behavior. -Two types of attitudes: ~Affective: whether or not the behavior will be enjoyable. ~Instrumental: whether or not the behavior will be beneficial/harmful.
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Behavioral Beliefs of TRA
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-Attitude is a function of behavioral beliefs. -perceived consequences of carrying out a specific action and a personal evaluation of each of these consequences.–positive and negative expectations.
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How do Attitudes and Behavioral beliefs go together?
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-Behavioral beliefs: all the positive and negative expectations. example: Positive ~fun, good for me, weight control. Negative ~TIme consuming, boring, might get injured. -Attitudes: (affective and instrumental) overall positive or negative evaluations.
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Theory of Reasoned Action 2
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-Subjective norm: Perceived social pressure that individuals feel to perform or not perform a behavior. -Two types of subjective norms: ~injunctive norm: whether or not important significan other approve of the person doing the behavior. ~Descriptive norm: whether or not important significant others are also doing the behavior.
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Normative Beliefs
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-Subjective norm is a function of normative beliefs. -Perceived expectations of important significant other or groups and the individuals motivation to comply with these expectations.
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How does the subjective Norm and Normative beliefs go together?
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-Normative beliefs: ALL the positive and negative expectations. -Subjective Norm: (descriptive and injunctive) overall positive or negative evaluations.
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Theory of Planned Behavior
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-One of the biggest limitations of the TRA was that it was not useful when people felt they did not have control over the situation. -Theory of reasoned action evolved into the theory of planned behavior. -Perceived behavioral control (PBC): Perceived ease or difficulty of performing a new behavior. and Can directly influence intention and can directly influence behavior. -Two Types: ~Perceived conrol: amount of control a person feels they have over exercising regularly. ~Self-efficacy: amount of confidence a person feels they have over exercising regularly.
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What is TPB?
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-Basic Tenets: People will act on their intentions to do something. People are rational.
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Control Beliefs
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-PBC is a function of control beliefs. -Control beliefs are the perceived presence of absence of required resources and opportunities.
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How do PBC and control beliefs go together:?
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-Control beliefs: ALL the positive and negative expectations. ~Positive: lots of time, confident that I can do it. ~Negative: No facility to go to, don’t know what to do. -PBC: (perceived control and self-efficacy) overall positive or negative evaluations. (Can be different for perceived control and self-efficacy).
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What are the important constructs of PBC:
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-Determinants of exercise: ~Best: intention ~Second best: PBC -Determinants of intention: ~Best: attitude ~Second best: PBC ~Third best: subjective norms.
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Elicitation studies:
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Elicitation studies are conducted to determine specific behavioral normative and control beliefs of a population. – +: feelings about performing the behavior (experiential attitude or affect) – +: attributes or outcomes of performing the behavior (behavioral beliefs). – Individuals or groups to whom they might listen who are in favor of or opposed to their performing the behavior. (normative referents) -Situational or environmental facilitators and barriers that make the behavior easy or difficult to perform (control beliefs and self-efficacy)
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Exercise beliefs in healthy populations
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Behavioral beliefs: -Improves fitness and health -improve physical appearance -fun/enjoyable -increases social interaction -Improves psychological health. Normative Beliefs: -Spouse -Family members -friends. Control Beliefs: -lack of time -lack of energy -lack of motivation .
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Normative beliefs from cancer survivor studies:
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Individuals or groups most important to them when thinking of exercise; -spouse, other family memebers, friends, physicians, other person with cancer
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Control Beliefs from cancer survivor sstudies:
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Factors that helped or prevented them from exercise during treatment: -Nausea experienced, fatigued, lack of time to exercise, lack of support for exercise, pain and scarceness experienced, lack of counseling for exercise, work at regular job.
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USE of TPB in practice
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Useful in building individual and community program.
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Limitations of these theories:
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Variables like demographics, past experiences and personality are not considered. -Ambiguous definition of perceived behavioral control– problems in measuring. -More time between intention and behavior less likely the behavior will happen. -Weak contribution of subjective norms. -too early to make conclusive statement about the proximal and distal relationship between intention and behavior. -Attitude has proven to be a consistent predictor of intention: subjective norms does not appear to be a stable predictor of intention, although support for this influence has been documented.

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