The Italian and Northern Renaissance

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Secularism
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A belief that life was more important than a preparation for the hereafter
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Humanism
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a literary movement that was truly modern in that a class of non-clerical writers concerned themselves with secular issues
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Northern Renaissance humanism
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A blend of religion and classical literature
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Christian humanism
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(Erasmus and Thomas More) tried to recapture the moral force of early christianity by studying the Greek and Hebrew texts of the Bible and the writings of the Church Fathers
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Republic of Florence
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Considered the cultural center of the Italian Renaissance; often compared to ancient Athens for its utter brilliance over a brief period
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How did italian bankers prosper?
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Made profitable loans to the popes and to the monarchs of Europe and financed successful commercial ventures
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Role of middle class in Italian City states
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Controlled the governments of the city-states and served as patrons to the artistic geniuses of the times
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Effects of the newfound wealth
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encouraged appreciation of earthly pleasures and diminished dedication to the pious traditions of the Middle Ages. THE WORLD COULD BE CHANGED WITHOUT THE HELP OF GOD.
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Medici Family
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most famous dynasty of merchants and bankers. ruled florence from early 15th century into the 18th century. Ruled the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Produced two popes, many cardinals, two queens of france.
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Individualism
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A sense of human power replaced religious awe. Pleasure and accomplishment superseded the medieval dedication to the cloistered life of the clergy. Instead of the disdain for the concerns of this world that the piety of the Middle Ages had fostered, people now valued involvement, a life of activity.
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Main patron of arts during Middle ages
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Church. Art lacked the proportions and animation of real human forms or faces
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Main patron of arts during Renaissance
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commercial class and the governments of city states. Art was religious in nature, forms were anatomically proportional, faces FILLED WITH EMOTION, artists reveled in their individuality of style
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Filippo Brunelleschi and Leon Battista Alberti
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studied ancient Roman buildings and used their principles to design and build cathedrals. Architects.
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Characteristics of Renaissance art
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primarily religious, less symbolic and more representational. glorified natural beauty
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Raphael
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considered one of the gretest painters of any era, his portraits and Madonnas epitomize the Renaissance style
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Humanist literature
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delt with issues of politics and personal concern outside of the realm of religion. Wrote in Italian rather than Latin, create the first European vernacular literature.
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Petrarch
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FATHER OF HUMANISM. considered the first modern writer
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Boccaccio
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Wrote Decameron
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Leonardo Bruni
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Wrote the first modern history, an account of the development of Florence. Used narrative, drew on authentic sources, introduced new historical periods
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Baldassare Castiglione
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Wrote “The Book of the Courtier”
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Niccolo Machiaelli
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wrote “The Prince”
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Northern Renaissance
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Spread of Renaissance ideals from Italy to the rest of Northern Europe (MD Germany, England, Switzerland, France, Belgium, Holland) Differed from Italian Renaissance in that it emphasized religion. Social reform through Christian values and an emphasis on reforming all of society through better Christian living. Originated in part because northern students went to italy to study and came back with new ideas and ideals.
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Christian Humanism
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emerged as the thinkers and writers in the north adopted a Renaissance curiosity for knowledge, but based their research on the Hebrew and Greek texts of the bible.
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Printing press
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invented by Johann Gutenberg. HAD INTERCHANGEABLE MOVEABLE TYPE
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Effects of printing press
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books became cheaper, more people began to read. books were translated into vernacular, commoners can now read. bible was translated into vernacular, common people began to read the bible for themselves
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Copernicus
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said that the geocentric view (heavenly bodies revolved around the earth) of astronomy was bs and used calculations that offered proof of a heliocentric system. CREATED A MAJOR DIVIDE BETWEEN SCIENCE AND THE CHURCH
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Mysticism
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involved the belief that an individual, alone, unaided by curch or sacraments could commune with God.
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Desiderius Erasmus
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personified Christain humanism in his pholosophic stances known as the Philosopy of Christ. disdained the Middle ages, Ignored hard philosophy, admired antiquity, wrote on humanist issues in purified Latin. “Prince of Humanists” attemted thrugh stiric writings to reform the Romcan Catholic Church while remaining loyal to it.
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England
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The Renaissance coincided with the reign of Elizabeth I. era of intense nationalism, produced by the resolution of dynastic rivalries and religious turmoil, gave birth to perhaps the greatest vernacular literature of all time.
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Francis Bacon
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helped form modern English during the Elizabethan Age
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William Shakespeare
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reflected the influence of the dramatiss of the ancient world and also the writers of the Italian Renaissance
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Thomas More
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fostered the Erasmian spirit in UTOPIA a book that criticized the correctible abuses of various institutions and that offered the blueprint for perfect society. Devout Roman Catholic, beheaded by King Henry VII for not supporting the king against the Pope during the English Reformation
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Bourgeoisie
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Social group that most often supported the centralizing efforts of the “new monarchs”
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Italian balance-of-power diplomacy
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designed to prevent a single Italian state from dominating the peninsula
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Decameron
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AKA the “Book of Prince Galehaut” 14th century medieval allegory by Giovanni Boccaccio. Told as a frame story encompasing 100 tales by ten young people
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three good French kings after 100 yr war
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Louis XI, Charles VII, Louis XII
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height of spanish expansion
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16th century through overseas exploration and overseas colonization
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“Golden Age” in Spain
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1550-1650; Spanish culture
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Jan van Eyck
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dutch painter of the 15th century known as one of the great masters. KNOWN FOR HIS EXCELLENT AND OFTEN HIGLY SYMBOLIC OIL PAINTINGS WITH METICULOUS DETAIL THAT FOCUSED ON EITHER RELIGIOUS OR SECULAR THEMES
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Rembrant van Rijn
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Dutch master. use of chiaroscuro (dark and light) was powerful and was in many of his self-portraits and paintings of stormy naval scenes.
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Women during Renaissance
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Few women were allowed into institutions of higher learning; were not taken seriously as powerful minds. Makes women like Laura Cereta, Isabella d’Este, and Catherine de Medici impressive
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Italian vs northern writers
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Italian: secular concerns Northern: religious concerns and ultimately helped lay the foundation for the movement known as the Protestant Reformation
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Individualism
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Born during Renaissance, people sought to recieve personal credit for their achievements, opposed to the medieval ideal of all glory going to God.
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Popolo
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new class of merchant families who had become wealthy in the economic boom times of the twelfth and thireenth centureis. Wanted their own share of the wealth and political power.
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Ciompi Revolt
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occured in Florence in 1378. Popolo expressed their dissatisfaction with the political and economic order by staging a violent struggle against the government. resulted in a brief period in which the poor established a tenuous control over the government
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Sforza
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social tensions in Milan led to the rise of a tyrant (signor) and the city eventually came to be dominated by the family of a mercenary.
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1. Which of the following trends was NOT true of the early Renaissance economy?
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a. There was in influx of wealth b. There was a steady decline in the manorial system c. The expense of maintain noble status was rising d. There was an economic recession e. Wealth was in the hands of a small minority (A)
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One could characterize a typical Renaissance family as
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extended
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Is “Last Supper” a fresco?
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no
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Jesuit order was successful during the Counter-Reformation for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
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they opened fine schools They maintained strict discipline over their members They maintained a mesure of independance from the papacy They served as confessors to many of the Catholic statesmen of Europe They were committed to missionary activity (C)
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the Thirty Years War resulted from all of the following except:
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the counter-reformation Growing power of the Hapsburgs Lutheran dissatisfaction with the Peace of Augsburg Religious conflict in Bohemia The expansion of Calvinism in the Holy Roman Empire (B)
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Cicero
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important politician and philosopher whose writings provide an account of the collapse of the Roman Republic. Was a brilliant Latin stylist. To write in the Ciceronian style became the stated goal of Petrarch and those humanists who followed in his path
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Civic Humanists
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wealthy group of young Florentines that Petrarch inspired with his work. viewed Cicero’s involvement in political causes as justification to use their own classical education for the public good. served as diplomats or working in the chancellery office.
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Plato’s influence
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writers were facinated by Plato’s belief tht ideals such as beauty or truth exist beyond the ability of our senses to recognize them, we can train our minds to make use of our ability to reson and thus get beyond the limits imposed by our senses.
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the City of Ladies
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written by CHRISTINE DE PISAN to counter the popular notion that women were inferior to men and incapable of making moral choices. women had to move to “a city of ladies” to allow their abilities to flourish
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Why did wealthy people patronize the arts?
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wanted to spornsor art that would glorify their achievements rather than tout the spiritul mesage tht was at the heart of medieval art.
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Single point perspective
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most important development for Ren. art was found in 1420. all elements within a painting converge at a single point in the distance allowing artists to create more realistic settings for their work.
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High Renaissance
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End of 15th century. The center of the renaissance moved from Florence to Rome. Florence experienced a religious backlash against the new style of art. In Rome, a series of popes (JULIUS II) WERE VERY INTERESTED IN THE ARTS AND SOUGHT TO BEAUTIFY THEIR CITY AND THEIR PALACES.
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Mannerism
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Late Renaissance art, showed distored figures and confusing themes.
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Michelangelo
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was employed by Julius II to paint the celling of the Sistine Chapel

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