The Biology of Health and Disease

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In the early 1900s the leading causes of death in the United States were
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infectious diseases
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Life expectancy in the United States has increased significantly since the early 1900s because
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of better advances in sanitation and medical care
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Today’s major health issues and leading causes of death are primarily influenced by
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behavior and lifestyles
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Mortality statistics describe
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death rates
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Behaviors that increase susceptibility to negative health consequences are
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risk behaviors.
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Taking positive action now to avoid becoming sick later is known as
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Disease prevention
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An example of secondary Prevention is
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Joining a smoking cessation program
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An exercise and healthy eating plan to recover from coronary bypass surgery is an example of
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Tertiary prevention
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Recognition of tobacco as a health hazard is
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one of the ten greatest public health achievements of the twentieth century.
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clean safe water and improved sanitation have contributed to
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control of infectious disease
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The number of new cases of an illness each year is referred to as
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incidence
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The usual number of cases of an illness occurring in the United States would be reported as the
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Prevalence
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The leading cause of death for Americans is
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Heart disease
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Actions that increase susceptibility to negative health outcomes and motivate people to change their behaviors are
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Risk behaviors
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Visualizing being successful at a weight loss program is an example of
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imagined rehearsal
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Observing a friend’s successful attempts to quit smoking in order to help yourself quit smoking is an example of
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modeling.
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An example of shaping is
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starting with small changes in behavior and gradually increasing the changes.
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A level of functioning in which systems operate smoothly and maintain equilibrium is termed
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homeostasis
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Attempting to return to normal or homeostasis after a crisis is termed
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adaptive response.
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Positive stress that presents the opportunity for personal growth and satisfaction is called
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eustress.
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An example of an event most likely to be associated with eustress is
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getting the highest score in the class on a difficult exam.
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Negative stress that can lead to debilitating stress and strain is called
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distress.
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The term describing what happens when we perceive danger is called
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fight or flight response
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A student’s first response to the prospect of an unannounced exam would be
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Alarm.
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The section of the brain that functions as the control center of the sympathetic nervous system and initiates the stress response is
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hypothalamus.
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The stress hormone cortisol has a major role in the following during the stress response:
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mobilizing nutrients in the blood
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All of the following are true about epinephrine except:
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Its release is stimulated by the pituitary gland.
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Research on stress and body function have found that prolonged stress
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reduces the effectiveness of the immune response.
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The part of the nervous system that slows down the body systems stimulated by the stress response is called the
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parasympathetic nervous system.
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The primary hormone responsible for physiological stress responses such as increased heart rate is
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epinephrine.
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You just realized that you have a ten-page paper due tomorrow and you haven’t even started it yet. The part of the brain that determines the overall reaction to stress such as this is the
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hypothalamus.
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Too much stress contributes to physiological changes including
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hardening of the arteries.
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The following is the best example of conflict
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wanting to go to a party but needing to study
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People with higher levels of stress reported ________ than people with lower levels of stress
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more upper respiratory illnesses
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Exercise reduces stress by
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increasing endorphins and reducing stress chemicals called cortisols.
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Eating healthy foods helps in managing stress because
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energy is produced and some nutrients are needed during stressful times
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A time management tip to reduce stress
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Make a list of tasks prioritize
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Which is not associated with the Alarm Phase of General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)?
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increased digestive system activity
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During a stress response the __________ releases adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH).
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anterior pituitary
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Research has shown evidence of a link between the mind’s reaction to stress and how the immune system functions.
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True
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Research suggests that too much stress can adversely affect the cardiovascular system.
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True
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Regular exercise a sound diet
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True
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Lack of proper sleep (rest) and distress can make you more susceptible to the flu
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True
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The best defense against CVD is
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Prevention
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The size of the human heart is about
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The size of your fist
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The upper chambers of the heart are called
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Atria
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The name of the heart valve that is between his left atrium and left ventricle is the _______ valve.
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Mitral
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Arteries carry blood away from the heart with the exception of the ____ arteries
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Pulmonary
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The blood vessels that oermit the exchange of oxygyn carbon dioxide
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capillaries
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the average heart beats
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70-80 beats per minute
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An adult with a damaged SA node
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must have a mechanical pacemaker implanted to control the heart rhythm.
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The medical term for the \”thickening\” of the arteries caused by fatty deposits cholesterol
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atherosclerosis.
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All of the following are methods of reducing risk for CVD except
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increase triglycerides in your blood.
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All of the following are involved in congestive heart failure except
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no accumulation of blood in the legs ankles
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The common name for a cerebrovascular accident is
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Stroke
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The following total cholesterol readings are within the recommended range:
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185 mg/dl
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Systolic pressure refers to
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pressure in the vessels when the heart is contracting
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Blood pressure is usually defined as normal when a reading is below
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120/80
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Obesity puts a strain on the heart because
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The heart works harder ro move blood through the extra pounds of fat
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How fat is distributed on the body contributes to risk for heart disease. The shape that is considered a higher risk is a(n)
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Apple
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Being completely cured of cancer means
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no cancer symptoms five years after diagnosis and long life expectancy.
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Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by
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uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells
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A benign tumor means that the tumor is
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non-cancerous
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A malignant tumor means that the tumor is
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cancerous
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A biopsy in a woman who has had breast cancer has shown that the cancer is now in her lymph nodes. The process of malignant cells moving throughout the body is called
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Metastasis
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One theory of cancer development claims that cancer-causing genes present on chromosomes
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oncogenes
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The type of cancer that continues to be the leading cancer killer in both men and women is
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lung.
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A key factor in breast cancer survival is
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individual recognition of early symptoms
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together with a family history of polyps and colitis
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colon cancer.
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In the \”ABCD\” rule for symptoms of melanoma the \”D\” stands for
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Diameter
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The age group at highest risk for testicular cancer is
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17-34
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The best time to perform a testicular self-exam is
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right after a bath or shower
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The warning signs of cancer include all of the following except
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being unusually hungry.
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Microscopic organisms that are disease-causing agents are termed
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pathogens.
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Organisms that live in peaceful coexistence with their human hosts are an example of
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endogenous microorganisms.
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The following is not a bacterial infection:
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influenza
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This disease occurs mainly in menstruating women. The symptoms are high fever headache
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toxic shock syndrome
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If left untreated periodontal disease can result in
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tooth loss
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the following is not a viral infection
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athlete’s foot
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A common water-borne protozoan disease is
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giardiasis
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An example of a self replicating protein based agent that systematically destroys brain cells is/are
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prions
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Infectious mononucleosis is caused by
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Epstein-Barr Virus
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The most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection in the United States is
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Chlamydia
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Babies born to mothers with herpes should
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be delivered by cesarean section
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The following is true about HIV
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women accounted for over 50% of new cases in 2002
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When the body overreacts to relatively harmless antigens by developing an overly elaborate protective mechanism we call this response a(n)
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allergic response
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The major risk factor for chronic bronchitis is
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cigarette smoking
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The disease characterized by abnormal growth of uterine tissue outside the uterine area is called
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endometriosis
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the following is true about type 1 diabetes
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it is characterized by permanent insulin deficiency
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Research indicates that most peptic ulcers result from an infection of a common bacterium
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Helicobacter pylori
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A repetitive stress injury that causes an irritation to the median nerve in the wrist is called
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carpal tunnel syndrome

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