Textile & Apparel Production, Management, and Services Reference Book

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Textile Industry
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common reference to the fiber-to-fabric segment of the textile and apparel industry.
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Apparel Industry
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common reference to industry segment involved in the manufacture of garments and accessories.
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Sewn products industry
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includes all stages of apparel production and interior furnishings, luggage, awnings and sewn toys.
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Textiles
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materials such as fibers, yarns, fabrics, or productions made of these.
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ATC-Agreement on Textiles and Clothing
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instrument to rovide the guidelines to integrate textiles and apparel into mainstream international trade rules.
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FTC-Federal Trade Commission
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responsible for preventing unfair and deceptive trade, to rotect teh ultimate consumer, and to regulate segments of the industry itself.
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Apparel services
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occupations that serve customers in the planning, selection, maintenance, and care of apparel.
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Industrial apparel production
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done by apparel firms including manufacturers, jobbers, or contractors.
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Apparel manufacturer
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designs, produces, and markets garments with its own brand label and own facilities.
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Jobber
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develops ideas for looks or designs, selects the fabric for the designs, and markets the finished products.
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Contractors
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business that produce apparel for jobbers or manufacturers.
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Private label merchandise
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made specifically for a retailer and carries the store’s private label.
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Staple or basic apparel
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clothing items that are primarily replacement rather than a want.
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Fashion apparel
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items that experience styling changes from season to season based on the wants and demands of customers.
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Cottage industries
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home-based sewing companies.
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Gray or greige goods
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knitted or woven fabrics in an unfinished state ( before dyeing)
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Fashion
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style accepted and used by the majority of people at any given time.
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Haute couture
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fashion from a designer who creates a collection of original designs and are sold on made-to-order basis.
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High Fashion
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styles or designs accepted by a limited gorup of fashion leaders.
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Common sales transactions
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cash, charge and layaway.
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Ergonomics
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science of fitting the job to the worker.
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3 levels of business organization
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management, mid-management, staff.
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SOP- Standard Operating Procedures
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written procedures for the teasks that are done on a regular basis.
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Most commonly used natural fibers
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Cotton, wool, silk and linen.
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Classifications of wool on labels
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WOOL-fiber from the fleece of the sheep or lamb or hair of Angora or Cashmere goat; -VIRGIN OR NEW WOOL-wool that has never been used or reclaimed- RECYCLED WOOL-fiber made from previously produced wool fabric
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Two basic types of manufactured fibers
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Cellulosic made from plants (rayon, triacetate, and acetate); noncellulosic-made from molecules fouind in petroleum, natural gas, air and water to become POLYMERs
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Generic name
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official name given to a fiber and are significantly different in chemical composition.
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Trademark name
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an assigned name given to the generic name.
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Property of Fibers
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abrasion resistance;absorbency;chemical reactivity; cohesiveness, cover; creep;crimp; density; dyeability; elastic recovery; elongation; feltability; flammability; flexibility; hand; eat conductivity; loft; luster; mildew resistance; pilling; reiliency; stiffness; strength; sunlight resistance
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Yarn
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a continuous strand of textile fibers, filaments, or material suitable for processing into a textile fabric.
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Silk
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the only natural filament fiber.
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Filament yarn
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made by twisting several stands of filament fiber together.
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Spun yarn
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made by twisting many staple fibers together.
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Spinning
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Last step in converting fibers to yarn.
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Three spinning systems used to produce spun yarn
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cotton, wool and worsted systems.
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Ply
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number of strands or yarns twisted togeter.
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Blended fibers
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have advantage of desirable characteristics of both fibers.
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4 methods of producing fabric
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felting, bonding, weaving or knitting.
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Looping or interlocking yarns together
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process for creating knitted fabrics.
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Felting
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process in which fibers (not yarns) are pressed together to form a fabric
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Bonding
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use of adhesive substance to hold together either fibers or separate layers of fabric.
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Warp yarns
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lengthwise yarns woven along the entire length of the fabric parallel to the selvage.
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Weft yarns
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crosswise yarns woven across the fabric.
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Finishes
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makes greige goods usable, fabrics more attractive, or improve fabrics performance.
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Design
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the organization or arrangement of parts that make up a structure or work of art.
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Elements of design
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line, shap/form, space, texture, and color.
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Characteristics of line
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indicates direction, length, width, and straightness.
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Shape or form
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the silhouette formed by the outline of a clothing design.
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3 classic silhouettes
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bell, tubular and back fullness.
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Space
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the background against which forms or shapes are seen.
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Texture
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the surface quality of an object.; important to how a fabric should be used.
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Color
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most noted and remembered aspect of clothing.
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Considerations in color combinations
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hues, values, and intensities.
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Color groupings
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primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary.
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Elements of design
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parts that make up a design which have no rigid rules, but follow basic guidelines called principles of design.
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Principles of design
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balance, proportion, rhythmn, emphasis, and harmony/unity.
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Monochromatic color scheme
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uses two or more variations of the same hue; contains varius tints, shades and intensities of one color.
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Analogous color scheme
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colors that are adjacent on color wheel with no fewer than 3 and no more than six colors in this scheme.
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Complementary color schemes
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use of colors taht are direct opposites of each other on the color wheel.
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Split complementary colro scheme
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one color with the tow colors on either side of its direct complement.
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Triad color schemes
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use of hues that are four steps apart and equidistant on the color wheel.
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Accented neutral color schemes
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made by using black, white, or gray with a small amoutn of bright color accent.
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Balance
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principle of design that produces a sense of restfulness and equilibrium between opposite elements.
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Proportion
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relationship of parts to each other and to the whole based on how space is divided.
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Rhythm
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the illusion of motion as the eye moves from one part of a design to another.
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Rhythm
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created by repetition, gradation or progression, and transition.
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Harmony or unity
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the final goal or any design.
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Basis for apparel and accessory choices
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personality; lifestyle; desiired image and fist impression; and values, needs, and wants.
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Factors for apparel and accessory quality
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appearance, care, comfort, and durability.
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1972 Care Labeling Act
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all finished garments and fabric shall have attached labels for garment maintenance.
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Textile Fiber Product Identification Act 190
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textile products shall have a label listing the generic names of fibers.
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Wool Product Labeling Act 1939
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all wool products shall be identified as either new or recycled wool.
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Fur Product Labeling Act 1951
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requires thelabel of a fur product to list the name of the animal, treatment of fur, country, etc.
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Falmmable Fabric Act 1953
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prohibits sale of fabrics that burn faster, easier, and more intesely than other fabrics.
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Labels
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piece of cloth or ribbon permanently attached to a gamernt with information about the garment.
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Hangtag
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detachable label made of heavy paper or cardboard with voluntary information.
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Set-in sleeves
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sleeves joined to a garment at the armhole with seam all around and allowing free movement.
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Raglan sleeve
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sleeve attached to the bodice by a seam that contines in one piece to the collar but no seam at the shoulder.
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Kimono sleeves
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sleeves that do not have seams to connect them to the bodice but are cut in one piece during construction.
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Dolman sleeve
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a kimono sleeve that is lower than usual at the underarm.
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Batwing sleeve
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a kimono sleeve that is loose and very low at the underarm.
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Types of skirts
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A-line, circular, dirndl, flared, gathered, gored, pleated, straight or fitted, wrap.
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Types of dresses
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A-line, blouson, coat, empire, lowered waistline, princess, sheath, shift or chemise, shirtwaist, tent.
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Types of women’s coats
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balmacaan, capecoat or Inverness loak, chesterfield, pea, princess, trench, wrap.
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Types of women’s jackets
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bolero, box, Chanel, Norfolk, safari, windbreaker.
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American cut suit
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natural sloping shoulders, a loosefitting jacket and moderately wide-notched lapels.
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European cut suit
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paddes shoulders, tigher armholes, a jacket narrowed at the waist, and peaked lapels.
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Men’s jackets
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single-breasted, double-breasted, sports, blazer.
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Types of lapels
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notched (standard business lapel); peak (two sharp points and more formal as seen on double-breasted)
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Trousers
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pants worn with a suit.
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Slacks
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pants worn for casual occasions. Traditional slacks have belt loops; Continental slacks have split waistband and no belt loops.
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Collar types
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button-down( buttons to the body of the shirt); French-style (short points and large spread); long-point (small spread and 4″-4 1/2″ in length; tab collar (snap tabs or collar point to hold tips behind the knot).
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Types of men’s coats
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topcoat, overcoat, all-weather, and three-quarter.
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Levels of fashion promotion
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Producers that manufacture raw materials; Manufacturers who wholesale finished products; Retailers who sell finished products to customers.
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Two broad categories of adverstising
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Product advertising-to immediately sell merchandise; Institutional advertising- to build a positive reputation for a company.
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Three types of special events for publicity
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Merchandise Events; Demonstrations and Educational events; Fashion Shows.
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Types of fashion shows
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Formal- has identifiable theme; informal-also called a showing and is less structured; industrial show- also called a trade show usually by industry producers; retail show- sponsored by a retailer usually in-store,the cutomer sow, or the charity show.
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Six types of window displays
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single-category (one type of merchandise at one price; campaign window (same type of merchandise for serval weeks in the same windows; single-promotion ( major seling event in all or most of the windows); sale displays- (used to show bargain or clearance sale merchandise);line-of-goods ( show items from one manufacturer; mass displays (include varied, low-priced items).
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Open window
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permits customers to see into the interior of the sore.
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Closed window
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closed-in compartment which does not allow viewing inside the store.
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Semi-closed window
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partial background that hides some of the store’s interior.
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Major categories of window displays
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selling and prestige.
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Components used in window displays
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merchandise, functional props, decorative prips, structural props, background, floor covering and lighting.
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Interior displays
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located where customers will see them and are used in combination with window displays and advertising.
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Types of interior displays
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showcase, counter, platforms, shdow boxes, environment, island, free-standing units, hanging, point-of-purchase, self-selection, and vidoe kiosks.
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Various arrangements for developing displays
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single-unit, repetition, step, zigzag, line, S-curve, crescent, reverse curve, radiation, and pyramid.
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Elements of an effective sign
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informative, accurate, appropriate for the display, follows a set pattern, and does not contain too much information.
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Fixtures
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items constructed to support and display merchandise.
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Fabrics and notions
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important components of garments chosen based on fashion trends, quality, performance, price and suitability.
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Grain
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direction of a weave in a fabric.
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On-grain
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warp and filling yarns intersect at right angles.
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Off-grain
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yarns are not at right angles and will cause various construction problems.
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Measures of fabric weights
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ounces per yard, yards per pound, and onces per square yard.
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Large prints
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should be used with simple designs.
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Small prints and solid colors
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should be used with garments of more design detail.
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Napped, sueded and pile fabrics
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have nap and usually require more yardage than other fabrics.
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Hand
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the feel, body and way a fabric falls when draped.
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Weight
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heaviness or lightness and thinness or thickness or the fabric.
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Shaping fabrics
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used for lining, interfacing, underlining, and interlining.
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Yardage
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amount of fabric needed for a particular project.
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Notions
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thread, buttons, elastic, hooks and eyes, smaps, trims, and tape.
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Motion economy
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using time saving techniques and being more efficient.
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Good machine control
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starting, stopping,and sweing at the speed desired.
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Faulty sewing machine threading
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breaking thread and skipped stitches.
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Basic sewing techniques
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backstitching; staystitching; basting; understitching; topstitching; sewing corners.points, and inserts; feeding uneven plies; and sewing darts, pleats, tucks, and buttonholes.
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Types of seams
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welt, French, flat-felled, and double-stitched.
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Seam finishes
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zigzag, handovercast, pinked, pinked and stitched, and clean finished.
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Hand stitches
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basting; backstitch, catch stitch, slip stitch, banket, buttonhole, therad chain, vertical hemming, blind-hemming, overcast, running, padding, French tacks, and tailor’s tacks.
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Repair procedures
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darning, patching, and seam reinforcement.
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4 types of conventional sewing machines
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straight stitch, zigzag, automatic stitch, and electronic or computerized machines.
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Types of industrial sewing macines
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lock stitch, chain stitch, automatic and decorative stitch machines.
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Additional features on industrial machines
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treadle, knee press, balance wheel, belt, thread stand, and sewing lamp.
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Spreading
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laying down of many layers of fabric, each on top of the preceding one, into a stack for multiple cuts.
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Pressing
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lifting an iron and setting it down on a fabric.
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Ironing
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sliding the iron back and forth over the fabric.
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Essential ingredients for pressing
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heat, moisture, and pressure.
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Three pressing methods
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dry pressing, wet pressing and steam pressing.
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Details that require pressing
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darts, pleats, tucks, gathers or shirring, plackets and zippers, buttonholes, pockets, and hems.
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Taking measurements
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major factor in saving time during garment construction.
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Key to sewing success
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measure often and accurately in addition to rechecking measurements.
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Basic measurements for a female client
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height, back waist length, high bust, bust, waist, and full hip.
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Basic measurements for a male client
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height, neck circumference, chest, waist, hips, and shirt sleeve length.
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Figure types
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gourps of patterns according to height, proportion and shape.
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Basic figure types for female patterns
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Misses’, Miss Petite, Junior, Junior Petite, Young Junior/Teen, Half-Size, and Women’s.
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Basic figure types for male patterns
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Boys’, Teen-Boys’, and Men’s.
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Children’s clothing categories
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Babies, Toddlers’, Children’s, Girls’, and Chubbie.
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True
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children’s clothing categories reflect physical development of the average child at specific ages.
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True
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names for figure types are not intended for the age of the client.
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Lengthwise grain
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perpendicular to the floor at the center front and center back of a garment.
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Crosswise grain
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parallel to the floor at the center front and center back of a garment.
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Balanced garment
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hangs the same distrance form teh body from right to left and front to back, is on-grain, and sufficient ease.
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Ease
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determined b current fashion, body build, activity, and type of fabric, and is distributed evenly to each side of a garment.
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Basic pattern alterations
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increasingor decreasing length, waist, hip line, crotch depth or length; raising or lowering bust darts; enlarging the bust area.
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Final pattern alterations
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pieced back together and put on client’s body for proper fit.
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Pattern guide sheet
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general information about the pattern, a vriety of cutting layouts, and sewing directions for garment construction.
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Preshrink and straighten
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to be done to fabric before cutting pattern.
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Determines straightness of fabric
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tearing the fabric, cutitng along a rpminent design line, or pulling a crosswise yarn.
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Fabric folds for pattern layout
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crosswise, lengthwise, partial or double fold.
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Require special pattern layouts
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napped, plaid, striped fabrics and geometric design fabrics.
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Large pattern pieces with place-on-fold brackets
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should be pinned to the fabric before other pattern pieces.
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Fitted facing or self-facing
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used to finish raw garment edge, such as an armhole or neckline.
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Interfacing
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used to add firmness or help retain shape.
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Linings
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may be free-hanging as in skirts and pants, or may be attached to hem as in jackets and sleeves.
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Gathered seams
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retain fullness.
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Eased seams
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are smooth and unpuckered.
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Self-casing or applied casing
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hold elastic or drawstrings in garments.
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Fitter
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person trained to determine and mark garments for alterations.
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Primary parts of blouses and shirts to alter
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neckline, shoulders, bodice, and sleevers.
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Waistline seam
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unique part of a dress that can be increased, decreased, raised, or lowered.
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Darts
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one of the primary techniques for changing bodices.
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True
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the lower portion of a gament is easier to alter than the upper portion.
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Hemline
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part of garments that is altered most.
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True
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lengthening and shortening alterations are done after all other alterations are complete.
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Characteristics of laundry sorting
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color, soil, size, texture, and type of handling required.
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Methods used to treat stains
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presoak, pretreating with a stain remover, stain removal guide and stain removal kits.
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Types of energy for soil removal
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mechanical(agitation or rotation of washer tub); chemical (laundry products); thermal (hot, warm, or cold water).
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Length of time to dry laundry
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temperature of the circulating air, size of the load, amount of moisture in teh the laundry, and type of fabric.
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Washer/extractor machines
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filter dry cleaning solvent to removce bleeding, dye, dirt, oil, and odors.
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Sanitizing textile and apparel products
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washing in hot water of at least 130F or drying in ultraviolet lamp dryer.

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