Test 1 Chapter 1

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What is social psychology?
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Social psychologists study social behavior (e.g., attitudes and beliefs, conformity and independence, love and hate) in terms of how it is shaped by other people our attitudes and personality, and our biology.
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What do we do to our social reality?
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We construct our social reality
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Our beliefs (attitudes and behaviors) are shaped by external social forces
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• Locality • Educational level • Subscribed media • Culture • Ethnicity
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Social behavior is influenced by…
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Our internal forces: • Inner attitudes about specific situations • Personality dispositions • Different people may react differently while facing the same situation.
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Myers points out that our social behavior is shaped by…
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Other people, our attitudes, personality, and our biology.
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The attrition a person makes for his or her spouse’s acid remarks depends upon the happiness of the marriage. What concept does this portray?
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Social behavior is a function of both the objective situation and how it is construed.
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Social Psychology is the study of:
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1. Social thinking 2. Social influence 3. Social relation
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Objective Reality…
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is filtered by people’s perceptions and beliefs
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We are bio-psycho-social organisms, which means…
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We reflect the interplay of our biological, psychological and social influences.
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Culture…
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The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
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Social Representations…
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A society’s widely held ideas and values, including assumptions and cultural ideologies. Our social representations help us make sense of our world.
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Hindsight Bias…
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The \”I knew it all along\” phenomenon. The tendency to exaggerate after learning an outcome, one’s ability to have foreseen how something turned out.
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The problem with hindsight bias is that..
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It can make people overconfident.
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Theories…
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Integrated set of principles/ideas that organize and explain observed events, and imply testable hypothesis.
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Hypothesis…
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Testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between events and allow us to test a theory.
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Correlational Research
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Naturally occurring relationships among variables, or detecting natural associations.
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Experimental Research
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Seeks clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more variables while controlling others.
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There are two types of research
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1. Correlational 2. Experimental
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Two Locations for Research
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1. Laboratory 2. Field
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Laboratory
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Location that holds a controlled situation.
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Field Study
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Research done in a natural, real-life settings, exploring everyday situations.
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Positive Correlation
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Two factors rise and fall together. \”The more the more; the less the less\”
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Negative Correlation
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As one factor goes up the other goes down and vice versa. \”The less the more; the more the less\”
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Strength of Correlational Research
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• It occurs in real world settings and it allows us to predict.
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Weaknesses of Correlation Research
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• Causation often ambiguous. • It does not tell us whether changing one variable will cause changes in another.
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Standing in the campus courtyard with a clipboard to record your observation of university students’ usage of cellular phones in an example of what type of research?
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Field research
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Correlation DOES NOT equal….?
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Causation
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The direction of causality problem
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Did A cause B or did B cause A?
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The third variable problem
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Perhaps variable C is really responsible for the relationship between A and B?
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Random Sample
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One in which every person in the population being studied has an equal choice of inclusion.
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Why is random sampling important?
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• Because this helps get non bias results • Helps researchers generalize to a population
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Question Order
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The order of questions in a survey. F. ex: Americans’ support for civil unions of gays and lesbians rises if they are first asked their opinion of gay marriage.
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Response Options/Question Wording
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The precise wording of questions and response choices may influence answers. F. ex: most people favor cutting \”foreign aid\” and increasing spending to \”help hungry people in other nations.\”
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Framing
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The way a question or an issue is posed can influence people decisions and expressed opinions.
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Two essential ingredients in a psychological experimental are:
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1. Control • Independent • Dependent 2.Random Assignment
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Control
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Manipulating variables, such as independent and dependent.
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Independent Variable
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Experimental factor that a researcher manipulates.
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Dependent Variable
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Variable being measured; depends on manipulations of the independent variable.
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Random assignment (RA)
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Process of assigning participants to the conditions/group of an experiment (treatment vs control) such that all persons have the same chance of being in a given condition/group.
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Why is RA this important?
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It is important because it eliminates any extra any extraneous factors (family status, intelligence, education) and thus creates equivalent groups before the experiment begins.
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Strength of Experimental Research
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• Lab is a simplified, controlled reality • Can explore cause and effect by controlling variables and by random assignment
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Weaknesses of Experimental Research
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• It is not realistic. • The artificiality of the lab vs the real world. • The lab has everything controlled when the real world nothing is actively controlled. • Most participants are WEIRD. • Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic – that represent only 12% of humanity.
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Is Random Sampling is the same as Random Assignment?
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Nope.
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An experimenter exposed participants to different room temperatures to determine their effects on aggression. Room temperature was the…
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Independent Variable
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An experimenter exposed participants to different room temperatures to determine their effects on aggression. Aggression was the…
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Dependent Variable
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You are interested in finding out the effects that crowding has on people’s moods. You conduct a study in a psychology research lab using two types of participants. One group that has to wait in a crowded room before answering questions and one group that doesn’t have to wait in a room. This is…
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Both experimental and lab research.

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