Test 1 – Chemistry Flashcard

What is one cause of the decline of the Roman Empire?
lead poisoning
What happens if there is a low cobalt level in inmates?
violent behavior
What helps control manic depression?
lithium salts
What are “mating chemicals”?
pheromones
How can atoms be viewed?
by using the scanning tunneling microscope
macroscopic
large
microscopic
small
What is water composed of?
two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom
How can water be split into hydrogen and oxygen gases?
electrolysis
What is electrolysis?
using an electric current to split something
What is made of atoms?
matter
What causes substances to change form?
reorganization of atoms
Define the problem, collect background information, form a hypothesis, test the hypothesis in an experiment, record data, draw conclusions and retest
scientific theory
possible explanation for an observation
hypothesis
What is a set of tested hypotheses that give an overall explanation (interpretation/why)?
theory/model
summarizes what happens without telling why
law
mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical change but may change forms
law of conservation of mass
gas and pressure
Boyle
cannot be broken down into a simpler substance
element
father of modern chemistry, beheaded because of political affiliation (burning/conservation of mass)
Lavoisier
involves no numbers (blue sky)
qualitative data
measurement (involves a number and a unit)
quantitative data
amount of space occupied by an object
volume
1 Liter=
1 dm^3= 1000cm^3
1 mL=
1 cm^3
amount of matter, measure of resistance of an object to change its state of motion
mass
amount of gravitational pull on an object
weight
Mass is constant, but what can change with location?
weight can
What are all uncertain?
measurements
Where should liquids be read from?
meniscus
meniscus
bottom of the curve
all known digits plus one estimated digit
significant figures
closeness to true value
accuracy
reproducible measurements
precision
Body temp in F
98.6
Body temp in C
37
Body temp in K
310
What happens the closer on gets to absolute zero? (theoretical bc it has never been reached)
it gets harder to remove anymore energy
C to K
K=C+273.15
K to C
C=K-273.15
C to F
F=9/5C+32
F to C
C=5/9(F-32)
mass/volume
density
rigid and have fixed shapes
solids
definite volume but not definite shape
liquid
no fixed volume or shape and is compressible (can be pushed together)
gas
3ft=
1 yard
2000 lbs=
1 ton
density of water
1 g/mL
look the same throughout
homogeneous
visibly distinguishable parts
heterogeneous
homogenous mixture
solution
How can mixtures be separated into pure substances?
physical means
What is a pure substance?
something that has a constant composition (elements and compounds)
combination of two or more elements in a specific ratio that can be separated by chemical means
compound
boiling, freezing, etc
physical changes
rusting, burning (cannot be changed back to original)
chemical changes
differences in volatility (how readily something becomes a gas)
distillation
solid and liquid
filtration
separates due to pigments and colors
chromatography
listed on the periodic table
elements
What makes a measurement valid?
number and units
mass
kilogram (kg)
length
meter (m)
time
second (s)
temperature
Kelvin (K)
electric current
ampere (A)
amount of a substance
mole (mol)
luminous intensity
candela (cd)
How thick is a dime?
1 mm
What is the diameter of a quarter?
2.5 cm
What is the average height of an adult man?
1.8 meters
What is the mass of a nickel?
about 5 grams
What is the mass of a 120 lb person?
about 55 kg
What is the volume of a 12 oz can of soda?
360 mL
boiling pt of water in F
212
Freezing pt of water in F
32
Boiling pt of water in C
100
Freezing pt of water in C
zero
Boiling pt of water in K
373.15
Freezing pt of water in K
273.15
absolute 0 in C
-273.15
Absolute 0 in K
zero
Absolute 0 in F
-459.67

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