Technology in Action Chapter 6

Flashcard maker : Kieran Carr
Moore’s Law
describes the pace at which central processing units (CPUs) improve
DRAM
Dynamic Random Access Memory-Most common in personal computers
System Evaluation
Tells if system is good enough looks at subsystems
APU
Accelerated Processing Unit
GPU
Graphics Processing Unit
CPU + GPU=
APU
Casual User
Uses the computer primarily for internet access
Uses some software applications locally like Microsoft office
Uses videos and software but does not create
Power User
Needs fast, powerful processing
Needs fast storage and lots of it
Creates videos and software programs
Mobile User
Needs a lightweight device
Needs a long battery life
Is happy to sacrifice some capabilities for less weight
CPU
Responsible for processing instructions, preforming calculations, managing the flow of information through your computer
System Properties
Shows you type of CPU
CPU Composed of two units
Control Unit and Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
Control Unit
Coordinates the activities of all the other computer components
ALU
Is responsible for preforming all the arithmetic calculations. It also makes logic and comparison decisions such as comparing items to determine if one is Greater than, Less than or Equal to another
Steps CPU Preforms:
1) Fetches required piece of data or instructions from RAM
2) Decodes the instruction for the computer to understand
3) Executes instruction
4) Stores the result to RAM before next instruction.

The process is called machine cycle

CPU Different from others?
Clock speed, whether it has multiple cores, amount of cache memory
Clock Speed
Dictates how many instructions the CPU can process each second. Measured in Gigahertz (GHz) or billions of steps per second. The faster the clock speed the more quickly the next instruction is processed. Between 2.1-4 GHz
Overclocking
Users push their hardware to preform faster. You run the CPU at faster speed than the manufacturer recommends. More heat and shorter lifetime of the CPU, voids warranty. See in gaming systems.
Core
On a CPU contains the parts of the CPU required for processing. Two or more complete processors live on same chip enabling the independent execution of two sets of instructions at the same time.
Hyperthreading(2002)
Provides quicker processing of information by enabling a new set of instructions to start executing before the previous set finished.
Allows two different programs to be processed at one time but sharing the resources.
Intel Core Processors
All Intel core processors have multiple cores and hyperthreading
Cache Memory
Is a form of RAM that gets data to the CPU for processing much faster than bringing the data in from the computers RAM
3 Levels of Cache
1) Cache is a block of memory built on the CPU Chip itself for storage of data or commands that have just been used. That gets data to the CPU blindingly fast.
2) Is located on the CPU chip but is slightly farther away and so takes some what longer to access than Level 1 cache. It contains more storage area than level 1 cache.
3) Is slower for the CPU to reach but is larger in size than level 2 cache.
The more expensive the CPU the more cache memory it will have.
CPU Benchmarks
Are measurements used to compare performance between processors
cpubenchmark.net
CPU Usage
the percentage of time your CPU is working
CPU Usage Graph
Records your CPU usage for the past minute. Leave open for full day
Activity Monitor
Apple Utility
RAM Random Access Memory
Is your computers temporary storage space. (Short term memory) Holds information only when the computer is turned on.
RAM
is Volatile Storage
ROM
Holds the critical start-up instructions
Hard Drive
is the largest non volatile in computer
RAM to Hard Drive
Million times faster for CPU to retrieve a peice of data from RAM than Hard Drive
DDR3
Double Data Rate 3 used most comes in 1066, 1333, 1600 MHz
DDR5
Even faster high performance graphics card
Memory Modules/Memory Cards
small circuit boards that hold a series of RAM chips and fit into special slots
DIMM
Dual Inline Memory module holds several chips
Physical Memory
The amount of RAM actually sitting on memory modules in your computer
Resource Monitor and Memory tab
also gives you details on CPU, Disk, and Network
Super-Fetch
Monitors the applications you use the most and pre-loads them into system memory so that they’ll be ready to be used when you want them.
Minimum RAM to Run Windows 8.1
2 gb’s
Limits to RAM Slots
Check manufacturer’s website
SSD
Solid-State Drive
Hard Drive Storage
is the largest capacity of any storage device
What is in the Hard Drive
Composed of several coated round thin plates of metal stacked on a spindle. Each plate is called a platter.
Data saved to a platter
A pattern of magnetized spots are created on the iron oxide coating of each platter. When spots are aligned in one direction they represent a 1. When they align the other direction it’s 0
Bits or Binary Digits
0’s and 1’s are the smallest pieces of data that computers can understand
Access Time
is the time it takes a storage device to locate its stored data and make it available for processing, is faster than optical drive. Measured in Milliseconds (MS) 12-13 ms
SSD Solid-state Drive
Uses electronic memory and has no mechanical motor or moving parts. Offers incredibly fast access times. (.1ms)
SSD’s
also have great advantage when booting up since a mechanical hard drive has to wait for motors to bring plates up to final rotation speed; no noise, very little heat, and very little power. Popular on Ultra-books. Now range up to 2 TB. Very expensive. 128 or 256 GB
Optical Drives
are disc drives that use a laser to store or read data
Data
is saved to compact disc(CD), Digital Video Disc(DVD), or Blu-ray disc (BD) called optical media within established tracks and sectors. Stores tiny pits. Extremely small (1 micron mil of meter)
CD’s and DVD’s
use red laser
Blu-Ray
uses Blue laser and are the fastest optical drive
File Formats:
1)Prerecorded discs are read-only (ROM), meaning you can’t save any data onto them
2) Recordable(R) formats allow you to write data but only once
3)Rewriteable(RW) discs let you write and rewrite data to them many times.
How much storage?
Enough to include OS, Software, Data Files, Personal Files
RAID
Redundant array of independent disks- is a set of strategies for using more than one drive in a system RAID 0 and 1 are most popular
RAID 0
writes file in half the time speeds across two physical drives. Downside if either disk fail you loose data
RAID 1
All data written to one drive is instantly mirrored or written to second drive
Video Card/Adapter
is an expansion card that’s installed inside the computer system unit to translate binary data into the images you view on your monitor. Ports on card: DVI(LCD), HDMI, Display(Digital monitor or projector)
Video Memory
Included on card
GDDR3 or 5
Graphics double data rate
Minimum Video memory
1GB and for Gamers 2-3GB’s
GPU Graphics Processing Unit
is a separate processing chip specialized to handle 3-D graphics and image/video processing with incredible efficiency and speed
Major Video Chip Set Manufacturers
Nvidia Standard is named SLI
AMD is called CrossFire X
3-D Sound Card
is better at convincing the ear that sound is omnidirectional (you can’t tell which direction it comes from) Not surround sound
Surround Sound
is a type of audio processing that makes the listener experience sound as if it were coming from all directions with multiple speakers
Current Surround sound standard
Dolby. Many formats available including Dolby Digital EX and Dolby Digital Plus
Dolby TrueHD
Is the newest standard. Features HD and lossless technology that no information is lost in compression process
LFE
Extremely low-frequency
2 things to setup surround sound
1) a set of surround sound speakers and, for the greatest surround-sound experience,
2) a sound card that is Dolby Digital compatible
MIDI
is an electronics standard that allows different kinds of electronic instruments to communicate with each other and the computer
Registers
are super-high speed memory that the CPU uses to store instructions or intermediate values
Working storage space
While the computer is preforming operations such as running programs and sorting data it uses RAM
BIOS
is NOT a type of memory
Why don’t the CPU registers make a good choice for working storage space?
They are too small.
Not an advantage of a hard drive over cache and registers
It is faster
Hard Drive
Is permanent and holds information even when the power is turned off
Compared to cache and registers, RAM
Holds more data
The memory device that provides a computer with very large, long-term storage area for storing programs and data even when the computer is off is the _______.
Hard Drive
When performing mulitiple tasks at once, you can prevent your computer from slowing down by ____.
Installing additional RAM
The processing and memory portions of the CPU ____.
Are combined in a single chip
DDR SDRAM
Short for data rate SDRAM, DDR SDRAM can achieve nearly twice the bandwidth of its predecessor, SDRAM.
WRAM
Short for Windows RAM; a type of RAM developed by Samsung Electronics that supports two ports. This enables a video adapter to fetch the contents of memory for display at the same time that new bytes are being pumped into memory. This results in a much faster display than is possible with conventional single-port RAM.
SGRAM
Short for synchronous graphic random access memory; a type of DRAM used increasingly on video adapters and graphics accelerators.
What is meant by a cache hit or miss?
A hit occurs when the data that is being sought is already stored in the cache. A miss occurs when the data is not in the cache.
Relative to cache memory, what is meant by latency?
The amount of time between a processor request to read the memory and when the data arrives at the processor.
What is the biggest drawback to SDD drives?
Price
What is not a reason for adding an SSD drive to your computer?
Moderately priced storage
Why would you choose an external SSD instead of an internal drive?
No internal bays are available
External SSD drives can be connected using _______
a USB port
Cloning software
to make an exact replica of your hard drive to transfer your operating system to a solid state drive
SSD Drives are more durable than hard Disk drives because they have no ________
Moving parts
Solid state drives are virtually silent to operate.
True
External SSDs are ______ Internal SSDs.
Slower than
All laptops have room for more than one internal drive.
False
How many internal drive bays do most laptops currently have?
One
In addition to using the Windows Task Manager to determine whether your CPU is running efficiently, you can use it to _______.
End a nonresponsive program
What is the key combination run on Windows Task Manager?
Ctrl-Alt-Del
To determine which programs are most demanding on your computer, Click the ______.
Processes tab
If an application is unresponsive, its status in the Processes tab will be ________.
Not Responding
The _______ can help identify whether the processor is adequate for the work being performed.
CPU usage history
If your CPU usage is ______ percent or higher, you know that the type of work you are doing is more demanding than the CPU can comfortably maintain.
80
Not a Windows Task Manager tab
Programs tab
If you download a large to file laptop using your school’s WIFI network and you suspect some network slowness, on which tab of the Performance tab would you monitor this?
Wi-Fi
On the _______ you find a visual display of memory usage and a history log graph showing how many demands have been made on the system.
Performance tab
If a service is not running, its status in the services tab will be _______.
Stopped
Slot
is a socket where RAM chips are added
Bank
a group of slots
When installing RAM, you should ______ to discharge any static electricity.
Touch a metal edge of the computer
When you push down on the RAM chips, be sure that _______.
The end clips snap into place to hold the RAM securely
What prevents you from installing a RAM chip in the wrong direction?
Notches in the chip
Ram slots for the main memory are located on the _____.
Motherboard
What should you do if you receive an error message on reboot after installing new RAM Chips?
Remove the new RAM chip and reinsert if.
CDs, DVDs, and Blu-ray discs are _______ storage devices.
Optical
What does a CD/DVD or Blu-ray drive use to read and record data?
Lasers
Not a layer on a standard CD
Production
On which type of CD is the ink permanently darkened by the laser?
CD-R
A Blu-ray disc holds about ____ hours of standard video.
23
The plastic substrate in a CD is ____.
Where the data tracks are stamped during production
A CD_RW enables data to be written and erased from a CD by _____.
Using a substance that crystalizes when heard and cooled, changing its state
What optical disc has the largest storage capacity?
Blu-ray
The layer on which labels can be printed or written on a CD-R is the ______.
Protective layer
The indentations on a CD are called ______.
Pits
Low-level formatting
In this process, concentric circles, each called a track, and pie-shapped wedges, each called a sector, are created in the magnetized surface of each platter, setting up a grid-like pattern that identifies file locations on the hard drive.
High-level formatting
establishes the catalog that the computer uses to keep track of where each file is located on the hard drive.
Read/Write head
Moves from the outer edge of the spinning platter to the center, as frequently as 50 times per second, to retrieve (read) the hard drive platter.
Access time sum of two factors
1) the time it takes for the read/write heads to move over the surface of the disk, moving to the correct track, is called the seek time.
2) Once the read/write head locates the correct track, it may need to wait for the correct sector to spin to the read/write head. This waiting time is called latency or rotational delay.
Platter spins
the faster the platters spin (or the faster the rpm) the less time you’ll have to wait for your data to be accessed. Currently, most hard drives for home systems spin at 7,200 rpm.
Head Crash
a stoppage of the hard drive that often results in data loss.
Ensure your system stays reliable
Clear out unnecessary files, install a reliable antivirus package, run spyware and adware removal programs, run the disk defragmenter utility on your hard drive, automate the key utilities.
What to do when my systems crashes?
Check that you have enough RAM, system restore, Windows refresh, Microsoft knowledge base, search Google.
Dolby Digital 7.1 creates
8-channel surround sound
Not a type of video port
USB 3.0
When a computer is no longer useful. it can be _____
securely donated, recycled, turned into a sand-like substance.
To improve video performance, modern computers have a _____ in addition to the CPU.
GPU
The faster data transfer port for computers today is the _____ port.
Thunderbolt
Ultrabooks have the fastest optical drives
False
SSDs are classified as what type of storage?
nonvolatile
When would you want to consider RAID 1 technology?
when you need an instant backup of your work
The limit to how much RAM you can add to your system
Depends on the design of the motherboard, the operating system running on your system, the amount of memory each memory card slot supports.
SuperFetch is a memory-management technique that
preloads the applications you use most into system memory.
7 layer overwrite
fill hard drive seven times over with 1s and 0s
AMD Processors
Athlon 11 and phenom x4 are types of CPUs
Arithmetic logic unit
in CPU calculations such as add subtract and also greater that equal to
Benchmarks
measures used to compare CPU performance between processors

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