Systems Analysis and Design Chapter 1

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Information Technology
a combination of hardware, software, and telecommunications systems that support business operations, improve productivity, and help managers make decisions.
systems analysis and design
the process of developing information systems that effectively use hardware, software, data, processes, and people to support the company’s business objectives.
information system
system that combines information technology, people, and data to support business requirements. The five key components are hardware, software, data, processes, and people.
systems analyst
a person who plans, analyzes, and implements information systems. He or she may work internally within a company’s IT department or be hired by a company as an independent consultant.
system
a set of related components that produces specific results.
mission-critical system
an information system that is vital to a company’s operations.
data
basic facts that are the system’s raw material.
information
data that has been transformed into output valuable to users.
hardware
the physical layer of the information system, to include computers, networks, communications equipment, and other technology-based infrastructure.
server farm
a large concentration of servers working together.
Moore’s Law
accurately predicted that computer processing power would double ever 18 to 24 months.
software
a program run by computers for a specific function or task.
system software
software that controls the computer and includes the operating system, device drivers that communicate with hardware, and utilities.
applications software
software such as e-mail, word processors, spreadsheets, and graphics packages used by employees.
enterprise applications
examples of company-wide apps, include order processing systems, payroll systems, and company communication networks.
horizontal system
a basic system such as inventory or payroll package that is commonly used by a variety of companies.
vertical system
a system desgined to meet the unique requirements of a specific business or industry, such as Web-based retailer or video rental chain.
legacy systems
older systems that are typically less technologically advanced than currently available systems.
processes
procedure or task that users, managers, or IT staff members perform to achieve specific results.
stakeholders
those affected by the company’s performance, such as customers, employees, suppliers, stockholders, and members of the community.
e-commerce
internet-based commerce. Transactions (e.g. buying and selling of goods and information) that occurs on the Internet. Includes business to consumer and business to business.
electronic data interchange (EDI)
process that involves the computer to computer transfer of data between companies.
supply chain management (SCM)
the coordination, integration, and management of materials, information, and finances as they move from suppliers to customers, both within and between companies.
supply chain
all companies who provide materials, services, and functions needed to provide a product to a customer.
product-oriented
manufactured computers, routers, or microchips.
service-oriented
included consultants, vendors, software developers, and service providers.
business profile
defines a company’s overall functions, processes, organization, products, services, customers, suppliers, competitors, and future direction.
business process
specific set of transactions, events, and results that can be described and documented.
business process model (BPM)
a graphical representation of one or more business processes.
business process modeling notation (BPMN)
a standard set of shapes and symbols used to represent events, processes, workflows in computer-based modeling tools.
enterprise computing
information systems that support company-wide data management requirements such as airline reservation or credit card billing systems.
enterprise resource planning (ERP)
a process that establishes an enterprise-wide strategy for IT resources. ____ defines a specific architecture, including standards for data, processing, network, and user interface design.
transaction processing (TP) systems
operational systems used to process day to day recurring business transactions, such as customer billing, accounts receivable, etc.
business support systems (BSS)
provide job-related information support to users at all levels of a company.
Management Information Systems (MIS)
a computer-based information system used in business planning, control, decision making and problem solving
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
technology that uses high frequency radio waves to track physical objects.
knowledge base
large database that allows users to find info by clicking menus, typing key words or entering text questions in normal phrases.
inference rules
rules that identify data patterns and relationships within a knowledge management system.
user productivity systems
systems that provide employees of all levels a wide array of tools to improve job performance. Examples include e-mail, word processing, graphics, and company intranets.
groupware
programs that run on a company intranet that enable users to share data, collaborate on projects, and work in teams. AKA workgroup software. Examples include Groupwise and Google Docs.
strategic plans
the long-range plans that define the corporate mission and goals. Typically defined by top management, with input from all levels.
empowerment
a trend that places more responsibility and accountability through all levels of an organization.
modeling
a process that produces a graphical representation of a concept or process that systems developers can analyze, test, and modify.
business model
graphically represents business functions that consist of business processes, such as sales, accounting, and purchasing.
prototype
an early, rapidly constructed working version of the proposed information system.
computer-aided systems engineering (CASE)
a technique that uses powerful programs called CASE tools to provide an overall framework for systems development and support a wide variety of design methodologies, including structured analysis and object oriented analysis.
CASE tools
powerful software used in computer-aided systems engineering to help systems analysts develop and maintain information systems.
structured analysis
a traditional systems development technique that uses phases to plan, analyze, design, implement, and support an information system. Processes and data are treated as separate components.
object oriented (O-O) analysis
describes an information system by identifying things called objects. An object represents a real person, place, event, or transaction. Popular approach that sees a system from the viewpoint of the objects themselves as they function and interact with the system.
agile methods
AKA adaptive methods-systems development methods that attempt to develop a system incrementally, by building a series of prototypes and constantly adjusting them to user requirements.
project management
the process of planning, scheduling, monitoring, controlling, and reporting upon the development of an information system.
systems development life cycle (SDLC)
activities and functions that systems developers typically perform, regardless of how these activities and functions fit into a particular methodology. Includes the following steps: systems planning, systems analysis, systems design, systems implementation, systems support and security.
business rules
determine how a system handles data and produces useful information. AKA business logic, reflects the operational requirements of the business. Examples include adding the proper amount of sales tax to invoices, calculating customer balances and finance charges, and determining whether a customer is eligible for a volume-based discount.
data flow diagram (DFD)
diagram that shows the system stores, processes, and transforms data into useful information.
waterfall model
a type of graph that depicts the result of each SDLC phase flowing down into the next phase.
deliverable
a polished product suitable for its intended use. End products or often conincide with the completion of each SDLC phase.
systems request
a formal request to the IT department that describes problems or desired changes in an information system or business process. It might propose enhancements for an existing system, the correction of problems, or the development of an entirely new system.
preliminary investigation
initial investigation to clearly identify the nature and scope of the business opportunity or problem. Also called feasibility study.
systems analysis phase
the second SDLC phase. The purpose of the phase is to build a logical model of the new system.
requirements modeling
involves fact finding to describe the current system and identify the requirements for the new system. Requires fact finding the techniques like interviews, surveys, observation, and sampling.
systems requirements document
AKA software requirement specifications-contains requirements for the new system, describes the alternative narratives that were considered and makes a specific recommendation to management. It is the end product of the systems analysis phase.
systems design phase
the third SDLC phase. The purpose of systems design is to create a blueprint for the new system that will satisfy all documented requirements, whether the system is being developed in-house or purchased as a package.
system design specification
AKA technical design specification or detailed design specification-a document that presents the complete design for the new information system, along with detailed costs, staffing, and scheduling for completing the next SDLC phase, systems implementation.
systems support and security phase
IT staff maintains, enhances, and protects the system.
scalable design
can expand to meet new business requirements and volumes.
object
represents a real person, place, event, o transaction
class
a collection of similar objects
properties
characteristics that objects inherit from their class or possess on their own.
iterative
an adaptive method typically uses a spiral development model, which builds on a series of iterations.
spiral model
represents a series of iterations, or revisions, based on user feedback.
joint application development (JAD)
a popular systems development technique that uses a cross-matrixed task group of users, managers, and IT professionals that work together to gather information, discuss business needs and define the new system requirements.
Rapid Application Development (RAD)
a team-based technique that speeds up information systems development and produces a functioning information system. Similar in concept to JAD, but goes further by including all phases of systems development life cycle (SDLC).
technical support
necessary to support the wide variety of IT systems and users. It includes six main functions: application development, systems support, user support, database administration, network administration, and web support. These functions overlap considerably and often have different names in different companies.
service desk
a centralized resource staffed by IT professionals that provides users with the support they need to do their jobs.
critical thinking skills
the ability to compare, classify, evaluate, recognize patterns, analyze cause and effect, and apply logic. Such skills are valued in the IT industry.
certification
a credential an individual earns by demonstrating a certain level of knowledge and skill on a standardized test.
corporate culture
a set of beliefs, rules, traditions, values, and attitudes that define a company and influence its way of doing business.

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