[SYG 2000] Exam 3

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What effect did the agricultural revolution in Europe have on the transition to capitalism?
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It helped capitalism develop by increasing the efficiancy of production.
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Jenny lives in a society in which there is a strong norm against mixing business with pleasure. Work and leisure activities are physically separate, occurring at different times, on different days, at different places, and often with different people. Jenny lives in a ____________ society.
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modern capitalist
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According to the textbook, in a capitalist economic system, the price and distribution of goods and services are determined by what?
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competition
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The dominant economic system before the agricultural revolution was:
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the feudal system.
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At the end of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century, a massive transition was propelled by the development of new technologies, including:
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the power loom and steam engine.
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The agricultural revolution was spurred on by new innovations such as:
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crop rotation.
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Georg Simmel saw the development of monetary payment systems as part of a historical evolution leading to:
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depersonalization of exchange.
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Marx described workers as being alienated from:
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other people. themselves. the process of production.
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In contrast to Simmel, Karl Marx believed that friendship under capitalism is not possible because:
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all relationships become market relationships.
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Which theorist claimed that modern capitalism would not have arisen without the Protestant Reformation, which created the necessary social conditions for capitalism by creating theological insecurity and instilling a doctrine of predestination?
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Max Weber
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The “typical” American family today is:
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dual-income.
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Lawyers who don’t provide a tangible object to their clients work in the
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service sector
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____________ are states that are usually totalitarian and ruled either by a single individual or by a small group of people.
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Dictatorships
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The national government in the United State is an example of a(n) _________________ democracy.
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representative
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Which of the following is a criticism of democracies according to your text?
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Voters are typically uninformed about political issues
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Structural-functionalism answers the question “who rules America” with:
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pluralism
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Elite pluralists take the position that:
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the competition for votes ensures that no one group retains political power indefinitely, even when the leaders are members of elite classes
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The power elite theory states that power is:
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concentrated in a small number of people who control the major institutions of the state
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Mahendra lives in the United States after living in India for most of his life. He still sees himself as Indian, speaks Hindi as his preferred language at home, and tells his children how wonderful life was in India. Mahendra is part of a(n) __________________________________.
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imagined community
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When the Boko Haram group in Nigeria killed thousands of people and kidnapped 276 schoolgirls, these actions were considered:
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terrorism
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The _______________ is the social system involved in the production and distribution of goods.
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economy
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Post-Fordism is associated with ________________ when compared to Fordism.
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smaller production runs
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Which country today leads many forms of mass production?
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China
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A___________________ seeks to operate economic markets efficiently but also equitably.
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Welfare state
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Many manufacturing plants in the Northeast, since the 1960s, have closed and many lost their jobs. This is an example of ___________________________.
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deindustrialization
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When a few companies come to dominate the market, this is referred to as ______________________________.
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monopoly capitalism
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A decline in U.S. labor unions began in the ______________.
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60s
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Nina is a part-time college professor who tends bar at night and on weekends. She can be said to be
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underemployed
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A characteristic of _____________________ is that money is increasingly liquid and flows around the world quite readily.
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macrofinance
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Modernity is marked by __________, while post-modernity is marked by ____________.
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production and work; consumption
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John studies the fertility and migration trends of countries around the world. John would be classified as a(n) _____________________.
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demographer
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The baby boom took place between:
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1946 and 1960
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Ahmad runs away from his home country of Afghanistan to escape religious persecution. He flees to Germany, where he applies for permission to reside permanently. He is an example of a(n) _________________.
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asylum seeker
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The U.S. government labels a city of 50,000 residents or greater a(n) __________________.
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urban area
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Suburban areas continue to push outward to encompass land and housing that is cheaper. These outlying areas are called:
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exurbia
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What percentage of the population of the United States is urban?
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80%
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The area between Boston, MA, and Washington, DC, in the United States is classified as a ___________________.
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megalopolis
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Cliff is a researcher who is going to focus on the relationship between corporate policies and environmental issues and the way the____________ explains how everyone in the system depends on continuous growth.
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treadmill of production
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The most notable deforestation in the world is taking place in ___________________________.
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the Amazon rain forest
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_______________________ involves economic and environmental changes that meet the needs of the present, especially of the world’s poor, without jeopardizing the needs of the future.
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Sustainable development
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______________________ is the decline in the water supply as a result of the degradation and deterioration of soil and vegetation.
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Desertification
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Today, there are many areas that are located near major highways that contain shopping centers and many restaurants and surround large cities. These areas are often referred to as _______________________.
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edge cities
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During the process of gentrification, who is often forced out of the blighted areas in order to make way for new housing?
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the middle classes
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The earth is presently at _______ parts per million of carbon-dioxide in the atmosphere.
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400
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Last year, the Smith family visited Orlando, Florida for their summer vacation. Orlando, home to Disney World, places great emphasis on spectacle and being a site of entertainment. It can be classified as a(n) ____________ city.
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fantasy
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______ involves variations over time in every aspect of the social world, ranging from changes affecting individuals to transformations having an impact on the glove as a whole
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Social Change
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In Malcolm Gladwell’s essay “Small Change: Why the Revolution Will Not Be Tweeted,” the argument was made that social media are built on the basis of people who have ______ with one another
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both weak and strong ties
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the first wave of the women’s movement in the United States is traceable to the
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1840s
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the defining characteristic of the third wave of the women’s movement has been
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greater racial, ethnic, and sex and gender inclusivity
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The ______ signaled a negative turning point for the history of gay and lesbian movements in the United States
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Lavender Scare
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The key event in the history of the civil rights movement was
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The 1955 bus boycott in Alabama
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The focus on what groups of people need to do in order to effectively bring about social change is referred to as the ________________ theory
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Resource mobilization
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Which of the following is NOT a type of resource that is important in the mobilization of social movements
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Personal assets
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Riots, crowds, and disasters are all examples of
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Collective behavior
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The ____________ theory is based on the idea that new norms emerge in light of some precipitating event, and they guide the often nontraditional actions that characterize collective behavior
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Emergent norm
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Many __________ are organized via the Internet and other social networking sites, oftens to rally for a certain cause
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Flash mobs
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_______________ occured in Los Angeles in 1992 after police officers, charged with viciously beating black motorist Rodney King, were acquitted
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Race riots
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Which of the following is NOT a factor int he emergence of a social movement?
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Absence of grievances
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Hurricane Irma is an example of a natural __________
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Disaster
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The World Social Forum, founded in 2001, was concerned mainly with ________________
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The lack of democracy in global economic and political affairs
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The slogan of the World Social Forum has been coined
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Another world is possible
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According to Ritzer, contemporary social change is particularly characteristic of which three areas
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Globalization, consumption, and the Internet
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Prior to the current epoch of globalization, one of the things that characterized people, things, and information, among other things, was:
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They were more solid
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Disasters are often natural in origin but can also be human caused. All the following are roles humans often play in bringing about and/or exacerbating the consequences of disasters, except:
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Ensuring that building and safety codes are carefully followed
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According to Zygmunt Bauman, the perspective on globalization involves increasing
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Liquidity
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In No Logo, ________________ is very critical of the role that branding plays in the world of consumption
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Naomi Klein
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The Tea Party, attempting to appear as a grassroots movement, adopted a ________________ strategy
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Astroturf
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The difference between collective action and deviance is:
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Whether you are acting alone or as part of a group
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Group behavior has to violate social norms in order to be classified as “collective action” because:
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Collective action seeks to highlight the reasons social norms should be changed
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An example of collective action would be:
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Everyone walking out on an exam
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Ten thousand people writing the governor, asking him or her not to execute an individual is an example of:
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Mass collective action
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A difference between crowd collective action and mass collective action is that:
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Crowd collective action involves face-to-face interactions with other group members, while mass collective action can use media to tie people together
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Convergence theory doesn’t necessarily require:
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planning
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Participating in “the wave” at a baseball game is an example of ___________ theory
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Contagion
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Presbyterian, Green Bay Packers fan, Republican, and Italian are all group associations that help define you as an
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Individual

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