Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
this approach emphasizes the behavior of the leader and focuses exclusively on what leaders do and how they act
two general kinds of behaviors for the style approach
task and relationship behaviors
this behavior facilitates goal accomplishment, they help ground members to achieve their objectives
this behavior helps subordinates feel comfortable with themselves, with each-other, and with the situation in which they find themselves
Ohio State Studies
based on the findings of stodgill’s work which pointed in the importance of considering more than leader’s traits in the leadership research, this study decided how to analyze how individuals acted when they were leading a group or organization
University of Michigan Studies
these studies explored how leadership functioned in small groups
Blake and Mouton
this study explored how managers used task and relationship behaviors in the organizational setting
Leader behavior description questionnaire
150 questions and is given to people in educational, military, and industrial settings, and the results showed that certain clusters of behaviors were typical of leaders
from the questionnaire researchers found that two types of leader behaviors were formed
initiating structure and consideration (Stogdill 1974)
initiating structure behavior
this type of behavior are task behaviors, including such acts as organizing work, giving structure to the work context, defining role responsibilities, and scheduling work activities
this type of behavior are relationship behaviors and including building camaraderie, respect, trust, and liking between leaders, and followers.
the type of behaviors identified by the LBDQ-X11 represent the core of the style approach and are central to what leaders do:
leaders provide structure for subordinates, and they nurture them, the Ohio State studies viewed these two behaviors as distinct and independent.
the program of Michigan identified two types of leadership behaviors:
employee orientation and production orientation
the behavior of leaders who approach subordinates with a strong human relations emphasis, they take an interest in workers as human beings, value their individuality, and give special attention to their personal needs
this behavior consists of leadership behaviors that stress the technical and production aspects of a job, from this orientation workers are viewed as a means for getting work accomplished, this parallels the initiating structure cluster
the Michigan researchers conceptualized that
they viewed employee and production orientation at the opposite ends of the continuum, this suggested leaders who are oriented toward production were less oriented toward employees and vice versa
Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Leadership Grid
renamed the leadership grid this was designed to explain ow leaders helped organizations to reach their purpose through two factors: concern for production and concern for people
concern for production
refers to how a leader is concerned with organizational tasks, it involves a wide range of activities including attention to policy decisions, new product development, process issues, workload, and sales value, to name a few.
concern for people
refers to how a leader attends to the people in the organization who are trying to achieve its goals, this concern includes building organizational commitment and trust, promoting the personal worth of employees, providing good working conditions, maintaining a fair salary structure, and promoting good social relations.
authority compliance (9,1)
this style of leadership places heavy emphasis on task and job requirements, and less emphasis on people, except to the extent that people are tools for getting the job done. this style is results driven, and people are regarded as tools to that end, this leader can be seen as controlling, demanding, hard driving, and overpowering
country club management (1,9)
this style of leadership represents a low concern for task accomplishment coupled with a high concern for interpersonal relationships. they try to create a positive climate by being agreeable, eager to help, comforting, and uncontroversial
impoverished management (1,1)
this style leader is someone who is unconcerned with both the task and interpersonal relationships, this type of leader goes through the motions of being a leader but acts uninvolved and withdrawn. this leader often has little contact with followers and is described a indifferent, noncommittal, resigned, and apathetic.
middle of the road management (5,5)
this style of leadership describes leaders who are compromisers, who have an intermediate concern for task, and an intermediate concern for the people who do the task. they find a balance between taking people into account and work requirements, this leader is described as one who is expedient, prefers the middle ground, and swallows conviction in the interest of progress.
team management (9,9)
this style places a strong emphasis on both tasks and interpersonal relationships, it promotes a high degree of participation and teamwork in the organization and satisfies the basic need in employees to be involved and committed to their work. the best examples that are best described are, stimulates participation, gets issues in open, makes priorities clear, follows through, and enjoys working.
this refers to a leader who uses both (1,9)(9,1) styles but does not integrate the two, this is the benevolent dictator who acts graciously but does so far for the goal accomplishment, in essence this leader treats people as if they were dissociated from the task
paternalistic/maternalistic leaders are described as
“motherly” or “fatherly” toward their followers; and regard the organization as “family” make most of the key decisions, and reward loyalty and obedience while punishing noncompliance
opportunism refers to a leader who uses any combination of the basic five styles for the purpose of personal advancement, an opportunistic leader will adapt and shift his or her leadership style to gain personal advantage, putting self-interest ahead of other priorities, this includes ruthless, cunning, and self-motivated while some could argue that these types of leaders are adaptable and strategic
the style approach reminds leaders that:
reminds leaders that their actions toward others occur on a task level and a relationship level, in some situations leaders need to be more task oriented, whereas in others they need to be more relationship oriented
strengths of the style approach
first the approach marked a major shift in the focus of leadership research, second, a wide range of studies n leadership style validates and gives credibility to the basic tenets of the approach, and third on a conceptual level researchers from this approach ascertained that a leader’s style consist of primarily of two major types of behaviors: task and relationship, fourth, the style approach is heuristic it provides us with a broad conceptual map that is worth while to use in our attempts to understand leadership.
criticisms of the style approach
the approach has not adequately shown how leaders styles are associated with performance outcomes, another criticism is that this approach has failed to find a universal style of leadership that could be effective in almost every situation, and another final criticism is that the style approach implies that the most effective leadership is the high-high style which is not the case in most situations.