Stedman’s Medical Terminology Chapter 13

orbit
bony cavity of the skull that encases the eye

conjunctiva
mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and outer surface of the eyeball

lacrimal glands
glands that secrete tears

lacrimal ducts
channels that carry tears to the eye

nasolacrimal ducts
ducts that carry tears from the lacrimal glands to the nose

tarsal glands (meibomian glands)
oil glands along the edges of the eyelids that lubricate the eye

sclera
tough outer layer of the eye

cornea
transparent outer covering of the anterior chamber of the eye

aqueous humor
watery fluid that fills the anterior chamber of the eye

iris
colored muscular part of the eye located behind the cornea allows light to pass through

pupil
opening in the middle of the iris through which light passes

lens
transparent structure behind the pupil that bends and focuses light rays

choroid
middle layer of the eye that contains blood vessels

vitreous humor
jellylike fluid that fills the posterior chamber of the eye

retina
innermost layer of the eye that contains visual receptors

optic nerve
nerve that carries impulses from the retina to the brain to provide the sense of sight

fundus
posterior portion of the interior of the eyeball, visible through the ophthalmoscope

blephar/o
(combining form(s)) eyelid

conjunctiv/o
(combining form(s)) conjunctiva

corne/o, kerat/o
(combining form(s)) cornea

cry/o
(combining form(s)) cold

dacry/o, lacrim/o
(combining form(s)) tears or tear ducts

dipl/o
(combining form(s)) double, two

ir/o, irid/o
(combining form(s)) iris

ocul/o, ophthalm/o
(combining form(s)) eye

opt/o
(combining form(s)) vision, eye

phot/o
(combining form(s)) light

presby/o
(combining form(s)) related to aging

pupill/o, cor/e, cor/o
(combining form(s)) pupil

retin/o
(combining form(s)) retina

scler/o
(combining form(s)) hard, sclera

ton/o
(combining form(s)) tension, pressure

bi-, bin-
(prefix) two, twice

-ectasia, -ecstasis
(suffix) dilation, stretching

-lysis
(suffix) destruction, breakdown, separation

-malacia
(suffix) softening

-meter
(suffix) instrument for measuring

-metry
(suffix) measurement of

-opia, -opsia
(suffix) vision

-pexy
(suffix) surgical fixation

-phobia
(suffix) abnormal fear, aversion to, sensitivity to

-plasty
(suffix) surgical repair, reconstruction

-plegia
(suffix) paralysis

-ptosis
(suffix) prolapse, drooping, sagging

-rrhea
(suffix) flow, discharge

-scopy
(suffix) process of examining, examination

-spasm
(suffix) involuntary movement

-trophia
(suffix) to turn

accomodation
ability of the eye to adjust focus on near objects

binocular
pertaining to both eyes

blepharal
pertaining to the eyelid

conjunctival
pertaining to the conjunctiva

corneal
pertaining to the cornea

intraocular
within or inside the eye

iridal, iridial
pertaining to the iris

lacrimal
pertaining to tears

ocular (ophthalmic)
pertaining to the eye

optic
pertaining to vision

pupillary
pertaining to the pupil

retinal
pertaining to the retina

scleral
pertaining to the sclera

amblyopia
poor vision, usually in only one eye, caused by abnormal development of the visual areas; also known as “lazy eye”

astigmatism
distorted, blurry vision caused by abnormal curvature of the cornea or lens

blepharitis
inflammation of the eyelid

blepharoptosis
drooping of the eyelids; also shortened to ptosis

blepharospasm
contraction of the muscles surrounding the eye, which causes uncontrolled blinking

cataract
clouding of the lens of the eye, which causes poor vision

chalazion (meibomian cyst)
obstruction of an oil gland in the eye

color blindness
deficiency in distinguishing some colors

conjunctivitis
highly contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva; commonly known as pinkeye

dacryoadenitis
inflammation of a lacrimal gland

dacryocystitis
inflammation of the lacrimal sac

dacryolith
stone in the lacrimal sac or ducts

dacryorrhea
excessive discharge of tears

detached retina
separation of the retina from the choroid in the back of the eye; can be caused by injury, tumor, or hemorrhage

diabetic retinopathy
degenerative changes of the retina caused by diabetes mellitus; may lead to blindness

diplopia
double vision

exophthalmos (exophthalmus)
abnormal protrusion of one or both eyeballs

glaucoma
group of diseases of the eye characterized by increased intraocular pressure that damages the optic nerve

hordeolum
infection of an oil gland of the eyelid; commonly called a sty

hyperopia
farsightedness

iridomalacia
softening of the iris

iridoplegia
paralysis of the iris

iritis
inflammation of the iris

keratitis
inflammation of the cornea

keratomalacia
softening of the cornea, usually associated with severe vitamin A deficiency

macular degeneration
deterioration of the macula (the central part of the retina), causing impaired central vision; most commonly related to advancing age

myopia
nearsightedness

nyctalopia
poor vision in reduced light or at night; commonly called night blindness

nystagmus
involuntary rhythmic movements of the eye

ophthalmagia
pain in the eye

ophthalmia
condition of the eye characterized by severe conjunctivitis

ophthalmopathy
disease of the eye(s)

ophthalmoplegia
paralysis of the eye muscle(s)

photophobia
extreme sensitivity to light

presbyopia
impaired vision caused by old age

pterygium
growth of conjunctival tissue over the cornea; usually associated with prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light

retinitis pigmentosa
hereditary progressive deterioration of the retina causing nyctalopia and impaired vision

retinopathy
any disease of the retina

scleritis
inflammation of the sclera

scleromalacia
softening or thinning of the sclera

strabismus
a condition of ocular misalignment caused by intraocular muscle imbalance

xerophthalmia
condition involving dry eye(s)

extraocular movement (EOM)
movement of the upper eyelids and eyeballs through the use of the extraocular muscles; assessed during clinical examination to screen for eye movement disorders

fluorescein angiography
visualization and photographic recording of the flow of an orange fluorescent dye through the blood vessels of the eye

keratometer
instrument for measuring the curvature of the cornea

ophthalmoscope
instrument used for examining the interior of the eye through the pupil

ophthalmoscopy
use of the ophthalmoscope to view the interior of the eye

pupillometer
instrument for measuring the diameter of the pupil

pupillometry
measurement of the pupil

refraction
test using a manual refractor to determine an exact vision prescription

retinoscopy
examination of the retina

Snellen chart
chart containing symbols that is used in the testing of visual acuity

tonometer
instrument for measuring pressure within the eye

tonometry
use of the tonometer to measure intraocular pressure within the eye; done to diagnose glaucoma

visual acuity (VA) testing
testing for the sharpness (clarity) of distant vision, usually with a Snellen chart; normal vision acuity is 20/20

visual field (VF) testing
assessment of the range (area) visible to one eye without movement

blepharoplasty
surgical repair of the eyelid

cataract extraction
surgical removal of a cataract

cryoretinopexy
surgical fixation of a detached retina or retinal tear by using extreme cold (freezing) to seal the tear

dacryocystotomy
incision into the tear sac

enucleation
removal of an eyeball

intraocular lens (IOL) implant
implantation of an artificial lens to replace a defective natural lens

iridectomy
excision of part of the iris

iridotomy
incision into the iris, usually with a laser, to allow drainage of aqueous humor in therapy for narrow-angle glaucoma

keratoplasty
surgical repair of the cornea; corneal transplantation

laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)
procedure that uses a laser to create a corneal flap and reshape the corneal tissue; used to correct vision problems such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism

phacoemulsification
use of ultrasound to shatter and break up a cataract, followed by aspiration and removal

photorefractive keratectomy (PRK)
procedure using a laser to reshape the cornea to correct vision

retinal photocoagulation
repair of a retinal detachment or tear by using a laser beam to coagulate the tissues to allow a seal to form

scleral buckling
repair of a retinal detachment by attaching a band (buckle) around the sclera to keep the retina from pulling away

sclerotomy
incision into the sclera

trabeculectomy
surgical procedure to create a drain to reduce pressure within the eye

vitrectomy
removal of all or part of the vitreous humor

corticosteroid
drug that reduces inflammation; used to treat swelling and itching of the eye

hypotonic
drug used to relieve dry irritated eyes

miotic
drug used to constrict the pupil

mydriatic
drug used to dilate the pupil

prostaglandin
drug that relaxes muscles in the eye’s interior structure to allow better outflow of fluids

optician
one who fills prescriptions for corrective lenses

optometry
medical specialty concerned with the measurement of vision and prescription of corrective treatment or lenses

optometrist
one who practices optometry

ophthalmology
medical specialty concerned with the study of the eye, its diseases, and refractive errors

ophthalmologist
physician who specializes in ophthalmology

EOM
(Abbrev.) extraocular movement

IOL
(Abbrev.) intraocular lens

IOP
(Abbrev.) intraocular pressure

LASIK
(Abbrev.) laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis

OD
(Abbrev.) right eye (oculus dexter)

OS
(Abbrev.) left eye (oculus sinister)

OU
(Abbrev.) each eye or both eyes (oculus uterque)

PRK
(Abbrev.) photorefractive keratectomy

VA
(Abbrev.) visual acuity

VF
(Abbrev.) visual field

auricle (pinna)
external portion of the ear

external auditory meatus (external auditory canal)
canal that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane

cerumen
waxy substance created by glands of the external auditory means; earwax

tympanic membrane (TM)
eardrum; a semitransparent membrane that vibrates to transmit sound waves to the ossicles; separates the external auditory meatus from the ear cativity.

mastoid bone and cells
bone located behind the ear that is filled with air cavities and encloses the middle ear

pharyngotympanic tube (eustachian tube, auditory tube)
tubular channel that runs from the middle ear cavity to the pharynx

auditory ossicles
middle ear bones contained in the tympanic cavity that transmit sound vibrations

malleus
auditory ossicle shaped like a hammer or club

incus
auditory ossicle shaped like an anvil

stapes
auditory ossicle shaped like a stirrup

labyrinth
inner ear, which is made up of a series of semicircular canals, the vestibule, and the cochlea

cochlea
a small-shaped organ that contains the organ of hearing

spiral organ (organ of Corti)
receptor for hearing located within the cochlea; the organ of hearing

vestibule
anatomic chamber such as that found in the inner ear

semicircular canals and ducts
small tubes in the labyrinth that contain receptors that assist the body in maintaining balance

acous/o
(combining form(s)) hearing, sound

audi/o
(combining form(s)) hearing

aur/i, aur/o, ot/o
(combining form(s)) ear

cochle/o
(combining form(s)) cochlea

labyrinth/o
(combining form(s)) labyrinth, inner ear

mastoid/o
(combining form(s)) mastoid bone

myring/o, tympan/o
(combining form(s)) tympanic membrane, eardrum

staped/o
(combining form(s)) stapes

vestibul/o
(combining form(s)) vestibule

dys-
(prefix) difficult, abnormal

-acousis, -acusis
(suffix) hearing

-algia
(suffix) pain

-ectomy
(suffix) excision, surgical removal

-stomy
(suffix) surgical opening

acoustic
pertaining to hearing or sound

auditory
pertaining to hearing

aural (otic)
pertaining to the ear

cochlear
pertaining to the cochlea

labyrinthine
pertaining to the labyrinth or inner ear

mastoid
pertaining to the mastoid bone and cells

tympanic
pertaining to the tympanic membrane or tympanic cavity

vestibular
pertaining to the vestibule

acoustic neuroma
a benign tumor that develops on the acoustic nerve (the eighth cranial nerve that connects the ear to the brain) and causes hearing loss

cerumen impaction
excessive buildup of earwax

cholesteatoma
cystlike tumor of skin in the middle ear behind the tympanic membrane usually caused by chronic otitis media

conductive hearing loss
hearing loss due to obstruction or lesion in the outer and/or middle ear

dysacousia
impairment of hearing involving difficulty in the processing of sound

labyrinthitis
inflammation of the inner ear

mastoiditis
inflammation of the mastoid bone

Meniere disease (Meniere syndrome)
a chronic condition of the inner ear characterized by dizziness, tinnitus, hearing loss, and a sensation of pressure in the ear

myringitis
inflammation of the tympanic membrane

otalgia
pain in the ear

otitis externa (OE)
inflammation of the external auditory meatus; also known as “swimmer’s ear”

otitis media (OM)
inflammation of the middle ear

otomycosis
fungal infection in the ear

otopyorrhea
discharge of pus from the ear

otosclerosis
hardening of the ossicles, particularly the stapes

presbycusis
impaired hearing caused by old age

sensorineural hearing loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the inner ear or the auditory nerve

tinnitus
noises in the ear, such as ringing, buzzing, or humming

tympanic membrane perforation
a hole in or rupture of the eardrum

vertigo
a spinning sensation commonly used to mean dizziness

audiogram
record of hearing (presented in graph form)

audiometer
instrument for measuring hearing

audiometry
measurement of hearing

decibel (dB)
unit for expressing the intensity of sound

electronystagmography (ENG)
recording of eye movements in response to electrical impulses to diagnose balance problems

hertz (Hz)
unit of measure of frequency or pitch of sound

otoscope
instrument for examining the ear

otoscopy
use of an otoscope to examine the external auditory canal and tympanic membrane

tympanogram
record of middle ear function (presented in graph form)

tympanometer
instrument for measuring middle ear function

tympanometry
measurement of middle ear function

cochlear impant
an electronic device implanted in the cochlea to stimulate the auditory nerve and provide hearing sensations for the profoundly deaf

ear lavage
irrigation of the ear to remove cerumen buildup

labyrinthectomy
excision of part of the labyrinth

mastoidectomy
excision of part of the mastoid bone

mastoidotomy
incision into the mastoid bone

myringotomy (tympanostomy)
surgical incision (opening) into the tympanic membrane to drain fluid from the middle ear (usually done with subsequent tympanostomy tube placement)

otoplasty
surgical repair of the external ear

stapedectomy
removal of the stapes and replacement with a prosthesis; done to correct hearing loss from otosclerosis

tympanoplasty
surgical repair of the tympanic membrane and/or middle ear

tympanostomy tube placement
placement of a tube in the tympanic membrane to relieve symptoms caused by fluid buildup

antibiotic
drug that acts against susceptible microorganisms; used to treat otitis media and other ear diseases caused by bacteria

ceruminolytic
a substance instilled into the external auditory canal to soften earwax

otic
any medication that can be instilled into the ear drop by drop

audiology
medical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of hearing disorders and fitting of hearing aids

audiologist
one who specializes in audiology

otology
medical specialty concerned with the study of the ears and treatment of ear disease

otologist
physician who specializes in otology

otorhinolaryngology
medical specialty concerned with diseases of the ear, nose, and throat

otorhinolaryngologist
physician who specializes in otorhinolaryngology

AD
(Abbrev.) right ear (auris dexter)

AS
(Abbrev.) left ear (auris sinister)

AU
(Abbrev.) each ear, both ears (auris utraque)

dB
(Abbrev.) decibel

EENT
(Abbrev.) eyes, ears, nose, and throat

ENG
(Abbrev.) electronystagmography

ENT
(Abbrev.) ears, nose, and throat

Hz
(Abbrev.) Hertz

OE
(Abbrev.) otitis extrema

OM
(Abbrev.) otitis media

TM
(Abbrev.) tympanic membrane

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