Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
What is the nature of challenge of public relations?
What is NOT a representative term of the definitions of public relations?
What is NOT a component of public relations?
Which is NOT a component of basic PR practice?
What is the major difference between journalism and PR?
journalists gather and select info for the primary purpose of providing the public with news and info
What is the major difference between public relations and advertising?
advertising involves paid space and broadcast time
What is NOT an accurate statement regarding the relationship between PR and advertising?
PR is narrower in scope
What is the major difference between PR and marketing?
Marketing mainly aims to sell products and services for profits and satisfying customers
What strategic communication does PR NOT require to successfully integrate marketing, advertising, and PR?
issue- focus
What is a factor for fueling the trend toward integrating communication approach in PR?
advertising isn’t the silver bullet it used to be anymore because of high costs
One reason that does NOT contribute to the reason behind the PR field growing in Asia is…
the PR field is dying everywhere else
“planned” PR does not mean
solutions are intentionally not creative
What is NOT one implication of “public interest”
organizations can’t make a profit
What is NOT an element of RACE?
PR does NOT help society in what way?
makes things look better than they really are
What does PR NOT do to support marketing?
hypes new products
PR does not help contribute to the bottom line in what way?
helps companies talk their way out of situations
PR should lead marketing strategy because…
PR practitioners deal with multiple stakeholders
In crisis management, PR professionals do NOT…
distract the media
Which of the following is NOT a component of public relations?
financial audits
True/ False?
Public relations is a process, which is a series of actions, changes, or functions.
True/ False?
Research is the first step in any successful public relations campaign.
Journalists write primarily for segmented, targeted audiences, and are less inclined to appeal to the
True/ False?
Public relations is primarily addressed to external audiences.
True/ False?
Marketing is primarily designed as a relationship-building strategy, and less focused on
economic concerns.
True/ False?
There has been an increasing realization that an organizationWs goals and objectives can be best
accomplished through an integrated approach, not just through marketing but through all
communication functions.
True/ False?
The public relations field has yet to be developed in other countries around the world
True/ False?
Public relations is more than one-way dissemination of information materials
“Explanation” is the last step in the RACE formula.
Public relations professionals are not objective observers, but are advocates for their clients
What does the RACE acronym stand for and how is it used by public relations practitioners to
develop more effective campaigns?
– R: Research- what is the problem/situation?
– A: Action- what is going to be done about it?
– C: Communication- how will the public be told
– E: Evaluation- was the audience reached/ what was the effect?
Your book says that public relations contributes to the bottom line in at least nine ways. Name and
define four of them.
1. Awareness and Information: is the process in which the principle activities are publicity, promotion, and audience targeting. The outcomes include: pave the way for sales, fund- raising, and stock offerings
2.Organizational Motivation: where you deal with internal relations and communication. By doing this you build moral, teamwork, productivity, and corporate culture.
3. Crisis Management: where you respond or prevent issues and are involved in coalition building. This results in the protection of position, the retaining of allies an constituents, keeping normal operations going
4. Issue anticipation is where you do research and liaison with audience. By doing so you provide early warning on issues and social/ political anticipation.
What does NOT explain a changing focus in public relations?
the number of PR jobs is stagnating
Which is considered an essential ability for a public relations practitioner?
According to the 2006 Survey of practitioners by PRWeek, experts predict all of the following
specialty areas within public relations will be ^job-rich_ over the next five years EXCEPT:
What is the national median salary average for ^experienced_ (more than 20 years) public relations
What percentage of public relations professionals in the United States are female?
Which work setting offers the highest median salaries for public relations practitioners?
What is NOT a factor to explain the salary gap with regard to gender?
lack of licensing measures
Competition and conflict management are more essential than ever because
public acceptance and support are key to an organization’s success
The commission on public relations education recommends what courses?
– introduction to public relations
– public relations case studies
– public relations law and ethics
– public relations writing
Good public relations increases the effectiveness of all of the following
– ads, direct mai, sponsorships,and permission marketing
What is not an essential abilities for public relations practitioners
graphic design
Public relations jobs exist in which of the following places
public relations agencies, sports, entertainment, and corporations
Public relations practitioners must possess a variety of skills/abilities because
the field is so diverse
Former journalists are no longer considered ideal public relations practitioners because
PR field has expanded beyond media relations
In the “technician” role, public relations practitioners are
primarily responsible for producing communication products
In the “executive” role, practitioners do not
update media lists
Public relations internships are valuable because
A) the student and the organization both ^win._
B) the student gets real-life experience.
C) employers often hire recent graduates who worked as interns.
D) the student often receives academic credit.
According to 2008 salary data, the median salary for recent public relations graduates is
Communications managers do NOT
create fact sheets
Today’s public relations practitioner must understand
A) more than how information is disseminated.
B) how to manage competition and conflict.
C) how to achieve clear and consistent communication.
D) the importance of being socially responsible.
True/ False?
The median annual salary for recent graduates working in public relations is higher than the
median national average for all communication fields.
True/ False?
The salary advantage for men over women is unique in public relations.
True/ False?
Problem-solving ability is considered an essential ability for those pursuing a public relations career.
True/ False?
Today, much of the writing in public relations is done for “controlled media”
True/ False?
Public relations practitioners should still begin their careers as journalists
Experts predict that the fashion and entertainment fields will offer the most public relations jobs in
the next five years.
True/ False?
Writing is no longer as important as it used to be in public relations
True/ False?
“Business competence” is considered an essential ability for public relations practitioners.
True/ False?
Some public relations practitioners deal frequently with the public; others work primarily at their
True/ False?
“Liking people” is a good reason for entering the public relations field.
People who plan to have careers in public relations should develop knowledge and ability in five
basic areas. List the five essential qualifications and attitudes of public relations professionals and
address why each area is important in the public relations practice.
1. Writing Skills: the ability to convey info and ideas in written documents and online communications quickly, clearly, and concisely is essential
2. Research Ability: arguments must be supported by facts rather than generalities
3. Planning Expertise: Communication tools and activities are most effective when they are carefully developed and coordinated
4. Problem- Solving Ability: innovative ideas and fresh approaches solve complex problems and make a PR program unique an memorable
5. Business/ Economics Competence: the increasing emphasis on public relations as a management function calls for PR students to learn the basics of business and economics. People say they had more of a say on the decisions made in company with this background.
Which of the following factors is NOT associated with strategic conflict management?
What is the first phase of the conflict management lifecycle?
What is the strategy taken in the recovery phase of strategic management of conflict?
repairing relations and public image
According to the contingency theory of conflict management, what is the stance of public relations?
it depends
Which is not a contingency factor that public relations professionals must take into account in
managing a conflict with its public?
the emotional stance of PR professionals
Which is not one of the 11 groupings of contingency variables?
nature of the job market
What is the basic principle of the contingency theory of conflict management in public relations?
a number of factors influence PR practice
The contingency continuum from pure advocacy to pure accommodation forms the foundation for
identifying the stance of an organization toward a given public at a given time. What was the stance
positioning and response of KFC to PETAWs boycott?
Which of the following is a phase in the conflict management life cycle?
A) proactive
B) reactive
C) strategic
D) recovery
The first step in the proactive phase of strategic conflict management is
environmental scanning
In issues management, if the company decides the emerging issue is potentially damaging, what is the
next step?
create strategic planning
Which is the correct pair/observation with regard to perception and risk?
high complexity, high risk
According to Suzanne Zoda, all of the following are recommended in risk communication EXCEPT
actively hide your concerns
_____ are defined as a “major occurrence with a potentially negative outcome affecting the
organization, company, or industry, as well as its publics, products, services, or good names.”
What percentage of business crises are unexpected?
Which of the following actions is NOT recommended as a way to communicate during a crisis?
put the organization first
What is the most “accommodative” response in an image restoration strategy?
profuse apology
Coombs says all of the following are crisis communication strategies EXCEPT:
avoid the media
What does Déjà vu tell public relations professionals about the life cycle of strategic conflict
it’s ongoing
Risk communication is the first step in the proactive phase of conflict management.
True/ False?
The contingency theory of strategic conflict management considers public relations as a continuum
process between an organization and its public.
True/ False?
In the reactive phase of conflict management, an organization should employ strategies either to
bolster or repair its reputation in the eyes of key publics.
True/ False
The first step of issues management is the analysis of impact of issues on the organization.
True/ False?
The more complex a situation, the higher perception of risk.
True/ False?
Ingratiation is a crisis communication strategy whereby the organization acts to appease the public
True/ False
Pepsi used an accommodative strategy to avoid a massive recall in light of a perceived hoax involving
a syringe in a can.
True/ False?
The three foundations of reputation include economic performance, social responsiveness, and the
ability to deliver valuable outcomes to stakeholders.
true/ false?
The most accommodative response in image restoration strategies is a profuse apology.
True/ False
Risk communication attempts to convey information regarding risks to public health and safety and
the environment.
The life cycle of conflict depicts the four phases in conflict management experienced by public
relations professionals. The cycle also includes a few of the numerous public relations strategies that
professionals employ to deal with conflict. Explain the four phases of the conflict management cycle.
Cite examples for each phase.
1. Press Agentry/ Publicity: entailed one- way communication, primarily through the mass media to distribute info that may be exaggerated to hype a cause or product.
2. Public Info: one way distribution of info, not necessarily with a persuasive intent, is the purpose of the public info model, which is based on the journalistic ideal of accuracy and completeness
3. Two- way Asymmetric: scientific persuasion, feedback
4. Two Way Symmetric: gaining mutual understanding
Essentially a publicity release touting the PharaohWs accomplishments, this provided the key to
modern understanding about ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics.
the rosetta stone
The first use of the word “propaganda” has been linked to:
Pope Gregory XV
A great American showman who was responsible for developing the ^pseudo-event_ (and hyped
celebrities such as Jenny Lind):
Which is NOT one of the tactics used by railroads to get settlers to move to the American West?
using celebrities as endorsers
Which is NOT considered a reason why there is an influx of women working in public relations?
women are harder to convince than men
Many consider him the first presidential press secretary.
amos kendall
Environmental activist John Muir used public relations tactics to:
develop Yosemite valley into a national park
Ivy Lee’s four important contributions to public relations?
B) seeking active support and contributions of top management
C) maintaining open communication with the news media
D) emphasizing the necessity of humanizing business
E) businesses should align themselves with the public interest
Grunig’s four models of public relations?
1. two way asymmetric
2. public info
3. press agentry
4. two way symmetric
The major effort worldwide to improve standards and professionalism in public relations is:
To receive the Accredited in Public Relations (APR) designation as being accredited by the Public
Relations Society of America (PRSA), a person must:
have at least 5 yeas of professional experience or teaching and pass comprehensive exams
Which of the following is NOT a hallmark of public relations professional?
natural sales ability
“careerist” values
job security, salary level, recognition from superiors, prestige in organization
Opponents to licensing of public relations professionals say licensing wonWt work because:
it would be expensive for tax payers
topics that have been covered in the PRSA accreditation exam
media relations, crisis communications management, business literacy, PR history
Which of the following movements employed publicity techniques to further its cause?
A) abolition
B) suffrage
C) prohibition
D) environmentalism
Which of the following public relations techniques did Ivy Lee use in his New York Subway
A) pamphlets
B) posters
C) brochures
D) communicating directly to target audience
reasons why the public relations field expanded after World War II
B) increases in suburban populations.
C) advent of ^big_ business, government and labor.
D) scientific and technological advances.
E) proliferation of mass media.
following are ^classic public relations campaigns_ mentioned in the text EXCEPT
the Halliburton campaign
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) employs research to do all of the following
environmental monitoring, PR audits, communications audits, social audits
True/ False?
Ivy Lee was the first public relations counselor.
true/ false?
Theodore Roosevelt was the first president to make extensive use of news conferences and interviews
in drumming up support for his projects.
true/ false?
Edward L. Bernays was hired by John D. Rockefeller in aftermath of the Ludlow Massacre
true/ false?
Edward Bernays became known as the “father of modern public relations.”
True/ False?
“Transparency” is a major trend in public relations.
True/ false?
Women constitute about 55 percent of all practitioners.
True/ False?
According to PRSA, practitioners should have a sense of responsibility to society and the public
True/ False?
The licensing of public relations professionals is likely to begin in the near future
True/ False?
The first publicity agency, the Publicity Bureau, was established in 1900
true/ false?
P.T. Barnum was the first major industrialist to use public relations concepts
Public relations professionals use research for which of the following reasons?
A) achieving credibility with management
B) defining audiences and segmenting publics
C) formulating strategy
D) testing messages
The use of existing information in books, articles, and electronic databases is known as:
secondary research
Which of the following is NOT an example of qualitative research?
mail surveys
Purposive interview involves interviewees that are:
carefully selected based on expertise or influence
When everyone in the target audience has an equal chance of being selected for the survey, this is
known as a:
random sample
The most precise random sampling is usually done from:
list that give the name of everyone in the targeted audience
The first element in a public relations plan is a:
situational analysis
Which of the following is an example of an informational objective?
respondent awareness level
Which is NOT an element of Ketchum’s Strategic Planning Model?
A) facts
B) goals
C) audience
D) key message
A budget is usually divided into two categories, which are:
staff time and out of pocket expenses
All of the following are aspects of the “calendar” step
B) environmental context.
C) seasonal events.
D) sequencing of various tactics.
E) advance planning.
Which of the following is the measurement technique used in public relations?
A) compilation of news clips
B) analysis of key messages
C) determining the number of brochures distributed
D) sales or market share increases
Public relations programs should be directed to what kinds of audiences or publics?
specific and defined
The nine basic Management By Objectives (MBO) steps include all of the following EXCEPT:
entertainment expenses
Public relations firms use online databases for all of the following purposes EXCEPT
confirm proper news release format
The systematic and objective categorizing of content is known as what kind of research
content analysis
The most popular search engine worldwide in 2009 was
True/ False?
Planning is the first step in the four-step public relations process.
true/ false?
Public relations practitioners use research to achieve credibility with management.
true/ false?
Qualitative research usually produces “hard” data.
True/ false?
“Fog” and “Flesch” are two examples of readability formula.
True/ False?
Mail questionnaires typically have low response rates.
True/ False?
“Piggyback surveys” are also known as “omnibus surveys.”
True/ False?
All public relations objectives are “motivational.”
True/ False?
Public relations campaigns are mostly targeted to the general public.
True/ False?
Tactics are the nuts-and-bolts part of a public relations plan.
True/ False?
The evaluation element of a plan relates directly back to the objectives of the plan.
Which of the following are communication tactics?
A) news releases
B) news conferences
C) brochures
D) bumper stickers
All of the following are characteristics of “personalized communication” EXCEPT
public media
All of the following are characteristics of “mass communication”
perceptually based, low social presence, and asynchronous.
All of the following are examples of “controlled media” EXCEPT:
newspaper placements
Which of the following is a key objective for communicating a message?
A) message exposure
B) accurate dissemination of the message
C) acceptance of the message
D) attitude change
All of the following are elements of SchrammWs communication model EXCEPT:
The theory that says people use the mass media for a variety of purposes in known as:
uses and gratifications
The kind of audience that may initially pay attention to a message only because itWs entertaining is
known as a
passive audience
Effective tools for delivering information to an active audience include all of the following EXCEPT
All of the following are ways to increase audience understanding and comprehension of a message
A) use symbols and slogans.
B) avoid jargon.
C) avoid euphemisms.
D) avoid discriminatory language.
Which of the following is NOT a benefit of repeating a message?
guaranteed sales
All of the following are stages in the Five-Stage Adoption Process
awareness, adoption, interest, evaluation
At what stage in the adoption process do people seek more information about the idea or product?
According to Rogers, people who are eager to try new ideas are called
All of the following are considered to be an ^intermediate_ level of measurement EXCEPT:
All of the following are techniques used to measure message exposure
media impressions, internet hits, advertising equivalency, and info requests
The potential audience reached by a periodical or broadcast program is known as
media impressions
Tracking media coverage and comparing it over time is known as
bench marking
When practitioners count the number of public relations materials/products created, they are
The measurement technique that measures publicity-generated news stories with advertising is known as
advertising equivalency
True/ False?
The ultimate objective of any public relations effort is to achieve organizational objectives
True/ False?
Advertising equivalency as a means to measure the value of publicity is controversial
True/ False?
Media impressions (as a measurement tool) are the collective opinions of reporters and editors
True/ False?
Measuring media placements falls under the Advanced category in the public relations Effectiveness Yardstick
True/ False?
Before a public relations program can be properly evaluated, it is important to have clear objectives
True/ False?
“Relative advantage” is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as difficult to understand and
True/ False?
“Laggards” are traditionalists who are the last to adopt anything.
True/ False?
Brochures are considered to be an “interactive” medium.
True/ False?
To be an effective communicator, you must understand how people process information and change
their perceptions.
True/ False?
Effective communication takes place within a sphere of “shared experience.”
What are Internal Relations
deal with relationship between manager and employees
Public Affairs
builds/ maintains mutually beneficial governmental and local community affairs
buildings and maintains relations with government for the purpose of influencing legislation and regulation
Issues Management
anticipating, evaluating and responding to public policy issues that affect organizations; relationships wit their publics
Ancient beginnings of PR in India
spies on public and tells king what people are saying
Amos Kendall
worked with Andrew Jackson
considered the first press secretary
Nicholas Biddle
– bank of US
– first business of PR
– bank would pay for ads favorable to the bank’s position
Charles Lowell- Burlington
– build west/ find population
– brochure to settle in the west
Eras of Public Relation
1. Public Be Damned (1850-1900)
2.Public Be Informed (1901-1922)
3. Mutual Understanding (1923-1974)
4. Mutual Understanding (1975-)
Seedbed Era
of muckraking journalism
countered by defensive publicity.
World War I Period
– Woodrow Wilson: committee of public info
– Creel Head of CPI
– big companies highering PR firms
-of dramatic
demonstrations of the power of organized promotion.
Booming Twenties Era
– Bernays
-made crystalizing public opinion
-of applying
lessons learned in the war about the power of publicity.
Doris Fleischmann
– struggled for equality
– work with NAACP in Atlanta
– Support from North to have south follow
– beginning of civil rights movement
John Hill
Opened a firm in Cleveland
– tobacco research council: meal conflict and tarnish reputation
Arthur Page
– Vp of AT
– wouldn’t accept post of publicity without having a say in policy
Roosevelt Era and World War II
– (1930-1945) of the Great Depression, new media, public opinion polling,
and World War II.
Post War Era
of adjustment from a war-oriented economy to leadership of the “Free World”
and the emergence of television.
Period of Protest and Empowerment
of student and activist protests, the Vietnam War, and increasing recognition of social responsibility and more
responsive organizations.
Digital Age and Globalization
of accelerating technology, global competition, interdependence, instantaneous communication, and
Tim Traverse-Healy
• Royal Marine Commando,
• Co-founded IPRA and
• only foreigner in Arthur Page Society Hall of Fame
Inez Y. Kaiser
•Formed first African-American owned firm in 1961 with national accounts of 7-Up, Sears
•First black woman to join PRSA
Daniel J. Edelman
•Founded world’s largest independent firm in Chicago after working as a CBS reporter and as public relations director for Gillette
•Now has 1800 employees and 40 offices worldwide
•His son, Richard, is now CEO
Harold M. Burson
Operated his own firm for six years before joining with Bill Marsteller in 1952 to form Burson Marsteller
• Grew by opening offices not by acquisition
• Largest firm in the world by 1983 and then was acquired by Young and Rubicam and then WPP
A System
– a set of interacting parts with boundaries and achieves goals by changing and adapting
A Systems Perspective
– not dependent on physical closeness but rather on the specification of organization
public interactions define systems
March of Dimes
– an example of adjustment and adaption
– fight children with polio adapted to premature births
Tuna – Canning
– example of adjustment and adaptation
– acting tuna with nets adapts to net free catching
Open System
– exchange inputs and outputs through permeable boundaries
Open System Approach
1. Identify the problem situation
“What’s happening now?”
2. Identify the components of the system
“Who is involved / affected? “Who are the stakeholders?
3. Specify relationships with stakeholders
“How are we mutually involved and/or affected?”
4. Determine how the system behaves
“How do we interact?”
5. Monitor the environment
“What’s happening out there that affects
out relationship with stakeholders?
6. Determine the system’s evolution
“How did things get this way?
7. Determine the system’s evolution
“How did things get this way?” “How will things be in the future?”
Closed System
impermeable boundaries and cannot exchange matter, energy, or info
Closed System Approach
Assumes to have power to
“correct” the environment
Attempts to change undesirable
states in the environment
Takes the form of non-information
or low-information value output
Emphasizes persuasive
Attributes great powers to
messages placed in the media
(like a cuttlefish)
The public relations process
1. research
2. planning
3. communication
4. measurement
5 objectives of Communication
1. message exposure
2. accurate dissemination of the message
3. acceptance of the message
4. attitude change
5. change in overt behavior
Everett rogers factors that affect persuasion
1. Relative advantage (degree in which an idea is perceived as better than the idea it replaces)
2. Compatibility ( degree to which the idea is consistent with the existing values of organization)
3. Complexity (degree in which the idea is perceived as difficult to understand)
4. Trailability (degree in which the idea may be experienced on a limited basis)
5. Observability ( degree in which the results of the idea are visible to others)
Five Stage Adoption Process
1. awareness
2. interest
3. evaluation
4. trial
5. adoption
Advanced level of measurement
– behavior change
– attitude change
– opinion change
Intermediate Level of measurement
– retention
– comprehension
– awareness
– reception
Basic level of measurement
– targeted audiences
– impressions
– media placements
Society Passive
– psychologist have found that the public by and large tends to be passive
Society is Segmented
– engage the attention of a part of the population with a particular interest, but another issue may interest another segment
Society is Divided
– people have some opinions that may conflict/ compete with others
– mass media play a role in the unfolding of a conflict and serve to promote public debate by engaging widespread public involvement
Public Be Informed
Public Be Damned
– 1850- 1900
Mutual Understanding
– 1923 – 1974
Mutual Adjustment Era
– 1975- present
Eras of PR development
– public be damned
– public be informed
– mutual understanding
– mutual adjustment
– idea that credit and publicity always go to those who do something first
Branding/ Corporate Reputation
– service that provides advice on programs that establish companies’ brand and reputation for qulality
Crisis Communication
– service that counsels what to say or do during an emergency
Concurring Authority
– PR department must approve of materials meant to be sent out
Compulsory Advisory Set Up
– require top management to at least listen to staff experts before deciding on a strategy
Media Analyst
examines appropriate media for targeting specific messages to key audiences
Research/ evaluation
conducts scientific surveys to measure public attitudes
Financial Relations
counsels management on ways to avoid take over
– effectively communicate with stockholders
Advertising Equivalency (AVE)
– calculation of value of message exposure to cost or message
baseline study
-helps determine changes in an audiences opinion before and after
– tracking coverage and comparing it over a period of time
internet hits
– counting number of people reached via website and social media
– cyber media impressions
Media Impressions
– potential audience reached by a periodical broadcast program
5 Stage Adoption Process
1. Awareness
2. Interest
3. Evaluation
4. trail
5. adoption
attentive public
– group interested in issue but rely on opinion leaders to interpret info
Agenda setting
– idea that media content sets agenda for public discussion
Diffusion Theory
– belief that power of mass media rests in their ability to provide into and influence society
– communicating idea in a way that audience is influenced the way its imparted
inattentive public
– unaware and uninterested on issue
Multiple step flow
– flow of opinion
1/ opinion makers
2. attentive public
3. inattentive public
N step theory
– theory of mass communication suggesting mass media influence opinion leaders , they influence public
Community Relations
– activities done by organization within community to maintain good relationship
Government affairs
– relates directly with legislature and regulatory agencies
– lobbying
Industry relations
– relates with other firms and with trade associations
Issue Management
– identifies and addresses issues of public concern that affect an organization
Media Relations
– works with mass media by seeking publicity and responding to interests in an organization
Marketing COmmunications
– employs a combo of activities designed to sell a product

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