SSWH9 The student will analyze change and continuity in the Renaissance and Reformation.

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Florence
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Italy’s leading cultural center during Renaissance; important for trade and commerce;dominated by Medici’s
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Machiavelli
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1469-1527 Niccolo, most important writer on POLITICS in the Renaissance. In The Prince rejected the Christian idea that state subject to divine law. Adopted SECULAR and AMORAL view of POLITICS. State existed for its own sake. Ruler should be concerned with preservation of power. Ends justified means. Yet most successful states of time were not in Italy but the New Monarchies. Politics in Italy was about virtu not involving loyalty as in New Monarchies.
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Leonardo da Vinci
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Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect
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Michelangelo
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(1475-1564) An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.
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humanism
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A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
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Petrarch
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(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
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Dante
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-Italian, early 14th C. Tuscany his big work is Divine Comedy. Wrote in Italian (The Tuscan version) Because he wrote the Tuscan version of Italian it became the modern version of the language.
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Erasmus
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(1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote Praise of Folly.
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Protestant Reformation
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16th century series of religious actions which led to establishment of the Protestant churches. Led by Martin Luther
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Martin Luther
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95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.
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John Calvin
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1509-1564. French theologian. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings.
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Counter Reformation
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the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected)
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Council of Trent
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Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
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English Reformation
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result of the disagreement between Henry VIII and the Pope, created the Church of England or Anglican Church which was separate from the Catholic Church, still left little room for religious freedom
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Henry VIII
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(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England’s break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
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Elizabeth I
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(1533-1603) Queen of England and Ireland between 1558 and 1603. She was an absolute monarch and is considered to be one of the most successful rulers of all time.
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Gutenberg
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German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
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Renaissance
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-rebirth of art, culture, and intellect started in Ital
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printing press
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A mechanical device for transferring text or graphics from a woodblock or type to paper using ink. Presses using movable type first appeared in Europe in about 1450.
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Renaissance man
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a scholar during the Renaissance who (because knowledge was limited) could know almost everything about many topics
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Explain the social, economic, and political changes that contributed to the rise of Florence and the ideas of Machiavelli
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pope wanted to regain control of holy land; palestine, which is where Jesus was born and lived
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Identify artistic and scientific achievements of Leonardo da Vinci, the \”Renaissance man,\” and Michelangelo
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He was an inquisitive and inventive scholar and scientist.
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Describe the Counter Reformation at the Council of Trent and the role of the Jesuits.
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The counter reformation clarifies the doctrines of the church. The Counter Reformation developed the Prohibited Books. Also the Council of Trent came about at that time.
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Describe the English Reformation and the role of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I.
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England established 13 colonies. Some were commercial ventures for profit. Others were havens for religious people and others were gifts to loyal supporters.
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Explain the importance of Gutenberg and the invention of the printing press.
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He wrote the \”Iliad\” and the \”Odyssey\”, the first great epic poems of early Greece, were based on stories that had been passed down from generation to generation. Homer made use of oral traditions to compose the \”Iliad\”, his epic poem of the Trojan War. It is a story of the Greek hero Achilles and how the \”wrath of Achilles\” lead to disaster. The \”Odyssey\” is an epic romance that recounts the journeys of one of the Greek heroes, Odysseus, after the fall of Troy and his eventual return to his wife, Penelope, after twenty years. Homer’s world reflects the values of aristocratic heroes; values of courage and honor. Homer gave to the Greeks a single universally accepted model of heroism, honor, and nobility.

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