Read each document and explain what each discovery was and how it encouraged exploration.



What does it do?

How does this encourage more exploration?


1-It was a ship

2- Could carry 130 tons of cargo

3- Could sail against the wind

4- Could sail very fast

1- Ships were a main method of exploration

2- People could take all the things they found back home.

3- Made sailing easier because they didn’t have to avoid the wind

4- It was convenient, because the explorers could get there and back quicker

Magnetic Compass

1- Compass (helped navigate)

2- very accurate.

1- People didn’t have to rely on unreliable things.

2- The compass gave people more time to concentrate on things besides navigation, like food and shelter.


1- Navigational Instrument (which helped people navigate)

2- (It measured the positions of the stars and it measured latitude.

1- Sailors could find their way easier.

2- Gave sailors an idea where they were.

Mercator projection and better maps

1-was a map.

2-the true compass direction are kept intact

1-Very reliable

Caravel: A Revolutionary Sailing Ship

The caravel (also spelled carvel) is a light sailing ship that that was developed by the Portuguese in the late 1400’s, and was used for the next 300 years. The Portuguese developed this ship to help them explore the African coast.

The caravel was an improvement on older ships because it could sail very fast and also sail well into the wind (windward). Caravel planking on the hull replaced thinner, less effective planking. Caravels were broad-beamed ships that had 2 or 3 masts with square sails and a triangular sail (called a lanteen). They were up to about 65 feet long and could carry roughly 130 tons of cargo. Caravels were smaller and lighter than the later Spanish galleons (developed in the 1500’s).

Two of Christopher Columbus’ three ships were caravels (the Niña and the Pinta).

The compass was an extremely powerful invention that changed the world forever.

The compass is a navigational tool that uses the magnetic poles of the earth to find magnetic north. It has many good effects like the fact that people don’t have to rely on less accurate navigational devices to get themselves from point A to point B. The compass gave people more time to concentrate on things besides navigation, like food and shelter. Therefore people could travel more comfortably because they wouldn’t be spending all their energy on navigating.

Explorers wouldn’t get lost as easily because of inaccurate signs like seaweed and dead fish in the water (both of which were used before compasses were invented). Another benefit was that it made it possible for people like Columbus and the Chinese to explore parts of the world they had never been to before. If Columbus hadn’t picked up his compass and set out on a mission to go around the world then we might still be living in Europe.


An astrolabe is an instrument that was used to determine the altitude of objects in the sky (like the sun or stars). It was first used around 200 B.C. by astronomers in Greece. The astrolabe was replaced by the sextant.


Tools developed in the Middle Ages for exploration continued to be used during the Renaissance. One of these was the astrolabe, a portable device used by sailors to help them find their way. By measuring the distance of the sun and stars above the horizon, the astrolabe helped determine latitude, an important tool in navigation. Another tool, the magnetic compass, which had been invented in the twelfth century, was improved upon during the Renaissance.


Mercator projection
A Mercator projection is a type of rectangular map in which the true compass direction are kept intact (lines of latitude and longitude intersect at right angles), but areas are distorted (for example, polar areas look much larger than they really are). Mercator projections are useful for nautical navigation. Geradus Mercator devised this cylindrical projection for use in navigation in 1
Maps, too, became more reliable as Portuguese map makers, called cartographers, incorporated information provided by travelers and explorers into their work

Your Name: mod 7 A/B/C/D

Aim #2~ What happens if Christopher Columbus goes on his voyage?


The diaries of Columbus and his crew give us insight into the voyages of exploration. After reading this diary entry answer the questions at the end of this diary entry.

August 3, 1492: I have lived in Palos all my life. A week ago I signed on to be a crew member on Admiral Columbus’s voyage. Now I am on his ship Santa Maria, ready to sail. Many of my friends tell me that I am crazy. They say that no one knows what one will find on the great western Ocean. But I need the money t os support my family. God preserve me so that I will come back to them.

September 6, 1492: Today we left the Canary Islands and after a month’s stay, headed due west. God keep us all.

September 19, 1492: No sight of Cipango, the eastern island that we hoped to reach. Just after our daily hot meal of fish, vegetables and wine, we saw another hopeful sign- pelicans. Admiral Columbus told us that we were near the Indies because these birds stay within 150 miles if land.

September 23, 1492: The wind has died down. Many in the crew believe this is a bad sign and that we are on a voyage from which we will never return. There is talk of mutiny against the foreigner Columbus.

October 11, 1492: The men are about to take control of the ship. We believe that we will soon run out of food and starve to death on this unknown ocean; however, the Admiral reassured us. He told us again that he just knows that land is near and that within a week we will reach the Indies. Enough crew members were convinced by the Admiral to stick with him. Their patience, however, is running thin and unless we sight land soon, there really will be a mutiny.

October 12, 1492: Glory to God. One of the crew has sighted land. This time it is for real. Our Admiral has told us that this place, San Salvador, which we named for our savior, is one of the outer islands that surround Cipango (Japan) and Cathay (China). [Actually, Columbus landed in the Bahamas, on the island that today is still called San Salvador.]

October 13, 1492: Our Admiral has claimed this land for Spain and our Monarch. We met the people who live on the island. He believes that we are very near India. Unfortunately there seems to be little gold on the island but our Admiral believe that close by we will find the riches of the great Khan, the Emperor of China.

1.What does this diary tell us about the voyage of Columbus and his crew? (5 details)

-it went from August third to October 13rd.

-The crew desperately wanted to return home, they were even considering mutiny against Columbus

-the crew were impatient when searching for land. They had to constantly be reassured.

-Columbus landed in the Bahamas (San Salvador)

-They thought they were going to the Indies near Japan and China.

-Some of the crew had no experience.

– They were running out of food and didn’t think they would have enough.

– Columbus seemed knowledgeable.

2.Why do you think that Columbus had difficulty in finding crew members for his voyage?

Columbus had difficulty in finding crew members for his voyage because people didn’t want to do something that was dangerous. Also, they had no idea what they would find.

3.From the actions described in this diary, was Columbus a good leader? Would you support his request for money for the future expeditions if you were the King or Queen? Explain.

I think he was a good leader because he was able to encourage his crewmates and convince them that land was nearby and not to kill him. I would support his request for money if I was the King/Queen because Columbus found new land and that new land may contain riches.

Part II

The Columbian Exchange

The Columbian Exchange refers to the exchange of diseases, ideas, food crops, and populations between the New World and the Old World following the voyage to the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492. The Old World—by which we mean not just Europe, but the entire Eastern Hemisphere—gained from the Columbian Exchange in a number of ways.



Fill in the chart below using the information provided above.

Good stuff from the Americas

Bad stuff from the Americas

Good stuff from Europe, Africa & Asia

Bad stuff from Europe, Africa & Asia






sweet potatoes










Citrus fruits




Live Stock





coffee beans


sugar cane


Many diseases:






Whooping Cough



Conclusion about the Columbian exchange: (Write 1-2 sentences)

In conclusion, both sides got many good things but the Europeans benefited most, since they did not gain any bad things. The Native Americans got bad things from the Europeans like Smallpox,Influenza, Typhus, Measles, Malaria, Whooping Cough.

Aim 3: How did the Europeans and the Native Americans get along?

Directions: Read each passage with a pen. Remember you are looking for details about how the Colonists or explorers got along with the Native Americans. Highlight all the details you can find in each reading. For a main idea, give a general statement that tells us if they got along well or poorly. Your teacher will have each group start with a different document.

After you have read all the documents- or after the allotted time. Use the fill in the Venn Diagram.


European explorers relied heavily on the American Indians in developing settlements in North America. The Frenchmen Jacques Cartier, who played a major role in the development of the Canadian cities of Quebec and Montreal, adapted many aspects of Americans Indian culture and introduced them to Europeans. For example it was Cartier who first brought corn to Europe around the year 1540. Later, American Indians such as the Powhatan in Jamestown, Virginia (1607); and the Illinois people provided the assistance that made the difference between life and death for the European settlers. During these decades, full-fledged wars erupted twice between colonists and confederations of tribesAim 3 page 1 page #0.jpg.

Document C: The Dutch and the Mahican, Mohawk and Munsee

If you would rather do the Venn Diagram on a separate piece of paper you may.

When you finish you may put up a blue cup and continue with the “Little Extra” on the next page.

Name ________________Jared Lassalle_____________ Mod 7 A/B/C/D GLC04093_0.jpg

Aim #4: What happened to the Native Americans once the Europeans got here?

Papal Bulls of the 15th century gave Christian explorers the right to claim lands they “discovered” and lay claim to those lands for their Christian Monarchs. Any land that was not inhabited by Christians was available to be “discovered”, claimed, and exploited. If the “pagan” inhabitants could be converted, they might be spared. If not, they could be enslaved or killed.

What are your thoughts on the Doctrine of Discovery?

Sophia’s answer I think the doctrine of discovery is very unfair, because if someone lives in one place, it isn’t fair for another person to come along and claim their land, and changing their religion

Jared’s answer I think that the doctrine of discovery is bad why well first it basically made the christians god of the land (no offence to religion intended hopefully none taken) and second of all it was violent it it states that the inhabitants would not change to christianity they would be enslaved or killed

When you have completed the packet, come back and list all the reasons you can that answer the question above.

Read the following document with a pen. Highlight and label all of the ways that are shown that may have contributed to the decline in Native American populations. (There are at least 6.)

As you read, highlight any information that explains the drop in population of the Native Americans.

Massive Population Drop Found for Native Americans, DNA Shows

Genetic data supports accounts of decline following European contact.

The number of Native Americans quickly shrank by roughly half following European contact about 500 years ago, according to a new genetic study.An illustration of the Santa Maria unloading.

The finding supports historical accounts that Europeans triggered a wave of disease, warfare, and enslavement in the New World that had devastating effects for indigenous populations across the Americas.

Using samples of ancient and modern mitochondrial DNA—which is passed down only from mothers to daughters—the researchers calculated a demographic history for American Indians. (Get an overview of human genetics.)

Based on the data, the team estimates that the Native American population was at an all-time high about 5,000 years ago.

The population then reached a low point about 500 years ago—only a few years after Christopher Columbus arrived in the New World and before extensive European colonization began.

Study co-author Brendan O’Fallon, a population geneticist who conducted the research while at the University of Washington in Seattle, speculates that many of the early casualties may have been due to disease, which “would likely have traveled much faster than the European settlers themselves.”

For instance, the Franciscan friar Toribio de Benavente—one of the first Spanish missionaries to arrive in the New World in the early 1500s—wrote that Mexico was initially “extremely full of people, and when the smallpox began to attack the Indians, it became so great a pestilence among them … that in most provinces more than half the population died.”

Some historians have questioned whether such effects were restricted to particular cities or regions, but the new study suggests mortality was widespread.

Source: National Geographic article from 2011:

According to this article, why did the Native American population drop after the Europeans “discovered” the Americas?

a person’s answer ; According to the article, the native americans died because of diseases, which would likely have traveled faster than the settlers. When smallpox attacked the native americans, more than half the population died

Watch the video about Columbus.

Christopher Columbus: What Really Happened

Fill in the chart below as you watch/listen to the video. You can do this 1 of 2 ways.

1- split your screen so you can see the chart and the video. Make sure the volume is low.

2- play the video on one computer (one partner) and the other partner takes notes.

What did Columbus get out of the trip?

What happened to the Tainos?

Should we rename Columbus Day? Why or why not?



probably riches and glory

and definitely fame

•got gold

•got a colony


•stuffed animals


•Chilli pepers


•Kidnapped Tainos

-17 ship

•Columbus Went to their land and traded with them

yes but not sure what I don’t think that columbus should be honored

I don’t think Colombus Day should be renamed, but I think people shouldn’t honor him.

Anything Bad



-not much gold

-colony killed

-not allowed to go back

-Santa Maria Crashed

•killed all of columbus’s Colonists

•Got 3 chiefs kidnapped/ killed

•Got enslaved

•50,000 died

Read each document and explain what each discovery was and how it encouraged exploration.



What does it do?

How does this encourage more exploration?


1-It was a ship

2- Could carry 130 tons of cargo

3- Could sail against the wind

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