Sports PR Test 2

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
What is organizational media?
the tactics that sport organizations use to communicate with their publics (many of which do not rely on medias involvement)
Nature of Sport PR tactics
Advantages & Disadvantages
-Use many tactics to communicate with their publics
– many tactics DO NOT involve using the mass media
Advantages for Sport PR Tactics
– tailored to specific publics
– used by info seeking publics (they seek the info out most likely on a website)
Disadvantages for Sport PR Tactics
-high cost of developing, producing and distributing
– placing on website is much more cost effective
what is a media guide?
– generally produced annually
– provide detailed info regarding the sport organization and its teams
– mainly produced for the media
– source of revenue for the institution (sold to public, adv is sold)
– college: mens and women’s sports is separate guides
NCAA regulations for media guides
– one color of print inside the cover
– may not exceed 8.5 by 11
– no more than 208 pages
– no media guide to prospective student athlete
what does a media guide contain?
-general info
-team and event info
-season review
– history
– governing body info
What to consider when making a media guide?
-Planning: conduct intervies, gather info, track info, update historical records, secure copyright
-Design: cover, font, layout, color, photos
-editorial: credible writing, no grammar errors, AP style
-postseason guides: updated rosters and depth charts, complete game results, stats, standings, bios on players and coaches, post season records
Challenges for Media guides?
– pdf format on web instead of print to save money
– no print -> reporters don’t like it, media guide isn’t doing its job bc it can’t be used as a publicity tool properly, advertisers prefer hard copies
– must be newsworthy info
– internal or external
– emailed or online
– can target different audiences with different info (employees, alum, donors, former players, volunteers, community, advocate position)
Programs (Scorecards)
-sold day of event
-advertising is sold
– programs provide: line up, team info, feature stories
-keepsake for fans
-costly production
used mostly at the college level and are sponsored by a corporate sponsor who help the team. it features the teams schedule, theme, pic
Schedule Cards
pocket sized card that features the organizations schedule
– copies of news articles written by the media – not the organization)
-more credible
– must get permission bc of copyright
annual reports
– used for investor relations – required by SEC for publicly traded companies
– teams do this for season summary
what is the key for all publications produced by sport PR?
– message must be consistent
– unified message
– one person with the final say
– single identity
– look/graphics/ logos must be consistent
what must you consider when producing a video?
– be professional
– broadcast quality – no phone
– updated regularly with what is going on in the season
– about 10 minutes of video/1 minute of highlight video
– can sell ads/vid sponsorship
– PR people must be able to shoot, edit, write and deliver
What are the advantages of organizational media?
-positive publicity
-ad sales/ revenue stream for organization
– help with single identity/ messaging
what are the disadvantages of organizational media?
– cost
– time
what is corporate communications?
– Professional organizations may be structured so that public relations falls under corporate communications
– assumes both public relations and marketing responsibilities
– Can streamline and better coordinate communications
what is the strategic communications model?
Pedersen, Miloch and Laucella concived a strategic sport communication model in which one of the three components focused on sport mass media
What are the three components of the strategic communications model?
1. personal and organizational communication
2. sport mass media (publishing and print comm, electronic and visual comm, new media)
3. sport comm services & support (advertising, PR, crisis comm, research)
what are the four powers of the media?
1. constitutional protection
2. access to the public
3. corporate organization
4. construct ideology
1. constitutional protection
the media are granted freed by the first amendment of constitution (gov nor any other organization controls the media)
– good reason to maintain positive relations with media members
2. access to the public
– organiztions bypass traditional media to reach public
– 81% of population use internet
– importance of the media will not fade
– PR needs to balance the needs of the org and the needs of the mass media to ensure comprehensive publicity
3. corporate organization
– media conglomerates: formed when many news orbs are owned by same company
– vertical integration – allowed owners to promote their franchises for little or no cost and eliminate broadcast rights fees
– media consolidation reduces the number of media outlets
4. construct ideology
media decide what stories to cover based on newsworthiness (placement of stories, quotes, images)
– PR practitioners MUST convince media that their news is newsworthy
what can print media do that electronic media can’t?
– more in depth
– variety of sports covered
– better for local
who are the important players of the newspaper?
beat writers: write for specific teams and organizations
editorial staff: writes opinion pages
how is a newspaper staff organized?
-advertising is sold via business department
-editorial department produces content
what is a wire service?
Sports PR professionals use wire services to help disseminate news, game results and features about their organization by creating relationships with wire service staff
what does a wire service do?
provides news and photos of events throughout the world to subscriber media organizations
what are the main wire services in the world?
Associated Press – US
Reuters – British
what can electronic media do that print media can’t do?
– ability to cover a live event
– appealing action or motion to increase chance of coverage
what are ratings?
a percentage of the overall population who watch a particular program
– represented by households with a TV
what are shares?
a percentage of the population watching TV who tuned into a particular program
– repped by TV on
– mid 1800s
– began marriage of mass media and sport
– led to immediate reporting of baseball, boxing, horse racing and regattas in the us
broadcast rights fee
is the central to understand how todays relationship between media and sport has evolved
william trotter porter
– The Spirit of the Times
– first weekly sport publication
Joseph Pulitzer
– New York Herald
– started first sports department in a daily newspaper
William Randolph Hearst
– first sport section started
– New York Journal
Grantland Rice
– most recognized sports writer during the first quarter of the 20th century
– “Outlined against a blue gray October sky” – notre dame army football game
– created heroes out of athletes and social drama out of competition
– drew a mental picture
– brought sounds of games into homes and enhanced sporting experience
– WW1 technology helped development of radio
– radio allowed a live listen instead of next days newspaper
– announcers relied on western union tapes for play by play in studio sound effects to create live game effect for away games
early advertising
ford motor company paid 100,000 to advertise on radio during 1934 world series
-Gillette Razor Company sponsored WS for 32 consecutive years starting in ’39
how did TV help sports?
– started late 50s didn’t catch on
– no multiple cams – one view
– instant replay and slow motion attracted viewers
– owners feared people would not attend the games
– broadcasters blocked home games from air in local markets
Sports Broadcasting Act
– passed by congress
– before the act.. each team negotiated TV contracts with national networks (prominent large markets got contracts)
– SBA took away individual rights and distributed them equally
– firs league to benefit – NFL (4.5 mill to 14 mill a year)
Roone Arledge
– ABC sports president
– made first contract with NCAA for college football
– promised not to seek NFL
– ABC started MNF in 1970
– ABC held exclusive NCAA deal until 1982
– took ABC from 3rd place in 1960 to top in 1970s (college football, ABC wide world if sports, MNF, olympics)
sports adaptations in TV?
networks started requesting changes to the sport product
changes in baseball
– TV wanted more offense in baseball
– baseball lowered height of mound in 1969
– got DH in 1973
– expanded from 20 to 26 teams
– World Series moved to night for more viewers
changes in football
NFL has been most responsive to needs of TV
Monday Night Football
Rule changes that brought more scoring and offense:
-Hash marks moved closer together
-Goal-posts moved to back to end line
-Changed the yard line for kickoffs
-Reduced the penalty for offensive holding from 15 to 10
-Permitted offensive linemen to extend their arms and open their hands to protect the QB
-TV time-outs (to increase advertising opportunities)
-Sudden death overtime
-Two-minute warning
-Wild-card playoff berths
Made-for-TV sport
– evil knieval
– the superstars
– battle of the network stars
– goodwill games (Ted Turner, first games nMOscow 1986, 16 years)
– X games 1994
what was the brotherhood war?
– Oct. 22, 1895
– started bc of baseball management labor dispute
– formed first players association in sport
– players used media to sway public opinion
-players league lasted one season
who was the first sport PR practitioner?
– Steve Hannagan – 1920s and 30s
– publicized Memorial Day Auto Race on the Indianapolis Speedway
– helped MLB commemorate centennial celebration of baseball in 1939
– success: media relations campaigns and grassroots initiatives aimed at reaching broader public spectrum
Walter C. Camp
– father of football
– most influential person in the development of the college game
-HC of Yale 1872-1909
– edited annual college football guide
– selected players for first all american teams
Knute Rockne
– ND head coach
– created formula for success for football to make money for institutions
– brand equity (winning team, awareness, perceived quality)
– hired archie ward as sport publicity director (traveled with the tema and wrote stories for out of town media outlets
Steve Strickler
– mentioned “four horsemen” movie to Grantland Rice while in press box
– after rice wrote most famous sports lead in journalism, Skricker brought horses onto NDs practice field and photographed 4 players with footballs
– used awards and honors to recognize individual players
development of CoSIDA
-College Sports Info Directors of America
– created to advance professionalism in the sports info field
– about 2400 members
how the digital revolution change sports PR and all media?
– no more darkrooms for photos
– no more deadlines (instant with internet and social media)
– fans are more engaged
– athletes are now media trained
– technology has changed but journalism still has standards
– fans expect immediacy (problems: misinfo, rumor, misscomm)
decide what stories to cover
agenda setting theory
rating issues/ telling stories the media feel are important and stories the audience relate to
what must PR practitioners do to develop relationships with the media?
monitor the media agenda by developing relationships with the media, especially those who cover the org on a regular basis
beat reporters
-print reporter whom we deal with most frequently
– cover big stories and find stories to tell during off season
– PR must pitch positive organizational stories to help the beat reporter
– MUST be objective
– report the good and bad
– opinioned and controversial
– BEST reporting skills in the org
– spent years as a beat reporter and earned this
– source of negative publicity
– PR must turn negative column into positive news story
covering a lot of beats
what can PR practitioners do to help print media?
PR people must create relationships with the writers, approach with caution about negative articles, and turn negatives into positives
Electornic Media
TV and radio stations usually do not have beat reporters or columnists
– generalists
what can PR practitioners do to help electronic media?
PR should find something visually appealing and provide sources to interview which increases chance of coverage
what is blogging?
– citizen journalism
– no editor
– lack of professionalism
– remain anonymous
– many are linked to mainstream media for impact
– PR should cultivate relationships
what is media relations?
generating favorable publicity and minimizing unfavorable publicity through the fostering of desiring relationships with members of the media
– must know what the media need while covering our event
what is credential?
a pass that allows the bearer access into the facility without paying for a ticket
what must be in a credential policy?
– who gets credentials?
– distribution of creed
– application forms for creed
– supplements for creds
who usually does not get credentials?
– gaming publications
– free publications (ad tabloids)
– publications that do not usually cover sports
what must you consider when assigning seats in the press box?
-Those who cover the team regularly get best seats
-Those who have covered the team longer get best seats
-Separate booths/rooms for broadcast media
-Assign space to specific media organizations
-Assign same seats each week
-Place a nametag on each seat to eliminate confusion
-Post several seating diagram on the walls
what must you consider when issuing credentials to freelance journalists?
– letter from legitimate media outlet indicating a contractual agreement exists bt the freelancer and media outlet
– media letterhead
-PR person should check it
what mud you consider when bloggers want credentials?
how are credentials created?
-Contain person’s name, organization
-Sometimes pictures are also used
-Usually a pass for the entire season
-Lanyards laminated to prevent falsification
-Credentials should be a different color from team/coaches/doctors/trainers
-PR should also create event-specific credentials that can be distributed to:Opposing media and Non-regular media
how are credentials distributed?
in advance of event, printing different pass for each game in different color (expensive), in person during media day, at orgs office, will call window
what should be used in the actual credential?
what is a supplemental?
an additional credential allowing access to sidelines or other areas off the field
– stickers
– sleeves
– worn with regular credentials at all times
what must you consider for press box workspace?
– members of working media
– no cheering
-Those who cover the team regularly get best seats
-Those who have covered the team longer get best seats
-Separate booths/rooms for broadcast media
-Assign space to specific media organizations
-Assign same seats each week
-Place a nametag on each seat to eliminate confusion
-Post several seating diagram on the walls
who does the press box host?
– media
– sponsors
– talent scouts
– sports agents
– team officials and guests
who manages a press box?
the sport organization
press box at football stadium
suite at top of stadium
press box at baseball
behind home plate half way up the stands
press box at basketball
row of tables and chairs on side of court
what is media hospitality suite used for?
– used for many hours
– provides food and drinks for the media
– helps them come early, stay late, cover more
– downside = cost
what kind of stats are needed?
-Play by play
-Scoring summary
-Team and individual stats
-Drive charts
-Quickie stats (brief synopses that may be generated during a time out)
what statistical software is used?
StatCrew: most widely used and produces stats for every major and minor sport in college
during a game, how often are stats delivered to the news media?
what is a media room?
a hospitality suite to serve management’s varied interests (or working area)
a media rooms purpose?
distribute PR materials before the game begins
– game notes
-media guides
who is in charge of a media room?
PR people
why is parking a consideration for the media?
– big bags of heavy stuff
– stay longer than the average guest
– protection if they are close
– free and close
what is a media policy?
a set of guiding principles and behaviors to help ensure consistent, fair and ethical communication with all constituents
1. organizational spokesperson
2. employee media policy
3. determining coach and athlete availability
1. organizational spokesperson
speaks with the media
-Senior management speaking on important matters
-PR speaking on routine matters
-Always allow person with greatest knowledge – highest credibility – to speak
2. employee media policy
– Who will speak to the media when media needs something…don’t let media bypass spokesperson
– Train employees to send request to correct person!
3. Determining Coach and Athlete Availability
-Develop time when they can speak…and who can speak to media
-Media must request ahead of time
-Professional sports leagues mandate that coaches and players must be available for interviews following a game
-Fines can be given to athletes who aren’t available
how can PR practitioners maximize media exposure?
– what makes team unique
– packaging and positioning of the product
– uniqe athletes, stoies, achievements
– PR needs to identify key athletes
– sell the product to media with a pitch and media tour
what are 5 basic things PR can do to help get the media to interview after a victory?
1. Identify key athletes in advance / story angles
2. Develop media training for athletes and coaches
3. Develop advance PR awareness with media
4. Capitalize on the athletic success during and immediately after the event
5. Return to athletic competition
what is pitching a story?
how to pitch a story?
know your sport inside and our
develop your own sources
pitch the story
what is PR currency?
Two communication models
-press agentry and publicity model: try to generate as much publicity as possible for the org by distribution of positive info
– public info model: providing effective service to members of the media by meeting the needs of the media


the broad outcomes
the approaches you will take
the measurable steps to achieve the strategies
the tools you will use
what are the four categories of tactics and what should be the fifth?
-Advertising & Promotional -Media (paid)
-News media (media relations)
-Organizational media
-Interpersonal communication
*** 5. Social Media
pros and cons of advertising and promotional media
-Mostly used by marketing department
-Reaches large numbers for low cost; not as credible because it’s a paid message
P of news media
-Reach large numbers for free
-Must rely on third party to deliver your message (gatekeepers don’t always deliver)
PandC of organizational media
– reaches interested publics
– requires additional purchase by the consumer
– media guides
PandC of Interpersonal communication
– highly persuasive face to face
– reach only those in attendance
what is the goal of a news release?
sending newsworthy info to the media (good and bad)
who is the news release written to?
what do you want this person to do with the news release?
what info should the news release include?
1. Newsworthy information
2. Standard news release format and elements included
3. Type and function of the news release
4. Distribution
how do you measure news value?
-Timeliness (is the information new or relevant?)
-Impact (how does news affect audience?)
-Prominence (use prominent person to deliver message)
-Conflict (conflict is interesting)
-Proximity (is it close to the audience)
what is the format of a news release?
-Header with key contact information
-Lead paragraph summarizing news
-Paragraphs with additional details
-Tag (boilerplate) that identifies the organization
-Call to action
-Symbol signifying end
-Always use AP Style
-Top of the page
-Organization’s name (address, phone #)
-media contact’s name (usually PR person) (cell #,email)
-Release date – “For Immediate Release”
– Dateline (release location) – typed in all CAPS – at the beginning of first sentence (lead)
– Headline – active voice & must capture attention
– opening sentence (25 words or less)
– summarize news ( who what when where not why and how)
– :20 seconds to tell about the news
– 2nd to last paragrph
– basic info about organization (mission, history, achievements, goals)
call to action
– last paragraph
– tells readers what to do next and how ( order tix, more info, donate)
– contact info, website, email
types of releases
1. straight news
2. announcements
3. competition reviews
1. straight news
– most common
– player trades
– hiring firing of personnel
– player injury updates
– launch of new products
– facility updates
– brief
2. announcements
– upcoming special events
– contains quotes from CEO and charity leaders
3. competition reviews
– written as if reader knows nothing about org
– info about upcoming games or upcoming special competitions
– pics, summary
– distributed several days before
– game notes
what must PR person include in a competition release?
explain what happened in competition but focus on the positive even with a loss
*positive angle on negative news spin
what is a hometown release?
-used by universities and natl gov bodies
– spotlight is on one athlete in that athletes hometown
what is hyperlocal?
when hometown media quits focusing on natl news and starts focusing almost exclusively on local news that interest readers
spray and pray
– term used before internet
– mail them and hope they get covered
best and worst times to send
avoid fridays and mondays
focus on tuesday or wednesday mornings
what to send and how?
– send in the body, no attachments
RSS feeds
– really simple syndication
– series of standardized web feed formats used to publish frequently updated works such as blogs and news sites
– updates readers and allows them to visit site once
paid distribution service that sends news releases to media outlets throughout the state, country or world
– PR newswire
– business wire
Social Media Releases
-Shared among people with similar interests
-May be as important as email – maybe more
-Can link more than words (Video, audio, etc.)
-An audio recording of a quote or speech from an organizational spokesperson
– mP3 file is preferred
– Put it on website
-Audio recording that is directed at fans and includes interviews, news conferences, stories, etc.
Video – unedited video shots and sound bites related to a news story – sent to media in hope someone will cover the story – a way to help the media and improve chances of getting story covered
(Quotes, Visuals)
– Behind-the-scenes video of places off-limits to media and others
– Sometimes called “cover video”
Video news release
-Ready for broadcast package / news story made by organization in hopes media will “plug and play”
-Expensive to produce
-No guarantees media will use it
-Credibility issues because it’s produced by the organization, not a third-party (media)
what to consider when hiring a freelance photographer?
– written contract regarding pay
– what are usage and ownership rights?
– who owns the photos?
– get permission from those who are being photographed to use the photos

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