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Speech Definitions Chapter 1

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Speech delivered from a set of notes or outlines; researched, prepared, and organized
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Extemporaneous Speaking
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Is Extemporaneous speaking formal or conversational in tone?
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Conversational
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Speech presented with little or no preparation
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Impromptu Speech
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Reading word for word off a piece of paper
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Manuscript Speaking
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Transactional ( process of sharing meaning with others )
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Communication
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An act of communication in which a clearly identified speaker presents a message in a more formal manner than mere conversation to an audience of multiple listeners on an occasion to achieve a specific purpose
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Public Speaking
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What does “transactional” mean in the context of speech?
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Speaker is both sending AND receiving messages/feedback
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Does communication ever stop? Why or why not?
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No, because you continue to communicate nonverbally
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Engaging in communication with others that is perceived to be both effective and appropriate in a given context
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Communication Competence
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Speaking within the rules and standards set
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Appropriateness
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What are the degrees of effectiveness for speech?
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Proficiency to deficiency
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What are the six questions that define “context?”
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What, whom, why, where, when, and how?
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Using speech to achieve your goals
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Effectiveness
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What are the five things needed to achieve competent public speaking?
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Knowledge Skills Sensitivity Commitment Ethics
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Five things needed to achieve competent public speaking: Learning the rules
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Knowledge
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Five things needed to achieve competent public speaking: Showing not just knowing
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Skills
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Five things needed to achieve competent public speaking: Detecting, decoding, and comprehending signals from your audience. Helps to adapt
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Sensitivity
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Five things needed to achieve competent public speaking: Acquiring a passion for excellence
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Commitment
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Five things needed to achieve competent public speaking: Determining the right and wrong way of speaking
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Ethics
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What are the four types of noise interference?
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Physical (external environment) Physiological (internal) Semantic (word choice) Psychological (biases)
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When the intensity of the fight-or-flight response prevents an individual from giving a speech effectively
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Dysfunctional Speech Anxiety
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When the fight-or-flight response is managed to stimulates an optimum presentation
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Functional Speech Anxiety
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What are the three bullet points of communication?
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1) Transactional – working with audience 2) It’s a process – continous flow 3) Sharing Meanings – Making sense
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What type of interference stems from external distractions?
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Physical
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A facial tattoo is an example of what type of interference?
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Physical
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A hot room is an example of what type of inference?
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Phyiscal
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What type of interference comes from internal distractions?
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Phyiological
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Shaking knees and sweaty palms in an example of what type of interference?
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Physiological
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Pervasive insecurity is an example of what type of interference?
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Physiological
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What type of interference stems from word choice?
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Semantic
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Using an ethnic slur it considered what type of interference?
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Semantic
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What type of interference is within your own mind of either you or your audience?
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Psychological
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Ethnic prejudice is an example of what type of prejudice?
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Psychogical
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A geographical bias, such as disliking people from Oklahoma, is an example of what type of interference?
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Psychological
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What are the two main bullet points of communication competence?
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Effectiveness and Appropriateness
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What are the causes of dysfunctional anxiety
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Catastrophic Thinking Perfectionist Thinking Desire for Complete Approval The Illusion of Transparency
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Pertaining to self-defeating thoughts: fear of failure
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Catastrophic Thinking
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Pertaining to self-defeating thoughts: No mistakes permitted
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Perfectionist thinking
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Pertaining to self-defeating thoughts: Trying not to offend
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Desire for complete approval
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Pertaining to self-defeating thoughts: Being nervous about looking nervous
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The illusion of transparency
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What are three factors that provoke anxiety?
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Novelty Spotlight (conspicuousness) Type of speech
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Strategies for managing speech anxiety
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1) Prepare 2) Gain realistic perspective 3) ADOPT A NON-COMPETITIVE COMMUNICATION ORIENTATION (dont care about how you look, how you appear, etc… helps anxiety go down 4) Coping statements — “I can do this” 5) Visualize success 6) Use relaxation techniques 7) Incremental desensitization
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Type of speech where you remember every word of your speech
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Memorized Speaking
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Why is it important to understand the position of your audience?
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It effects effectiveness
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What are the 5 types of audiences?
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Captive Contrary Committed Concerned Casual
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Which type of audience is defined by disengaged listeners?
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Captive
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Which type of audience is defined by Hostile Listeners?
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Contrary
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What type of audience is defined by Agreeable listeners?
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Committed
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Which type of audience is defined by eager listeners?
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Concerned
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Which type of audience is defined by Unexpected listeners?
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Casual
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A learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably toward something, a quick evaluation
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Attitude
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What a person believes in true or probable
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Belief
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Most deeply felt, generally shared view of what is deemed good, right, or worthwhile thinknig or behavior
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Value
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Characteristics of an audience such as age, gender, culture, ethnicity, group affiliation
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Demographic
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Out of values, attitudes, and beliefs, which are the easiest to change? the hardest to change?
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Hardest = values Easiest – attitudes
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Dressing similar to your audience to express similarity and establish a repore
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Stylistic simplicity
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What are four types of topics that are inappropriate?
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Offensive Trivial Demeaning Advocate illegal activities
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When are you supposed to grab your audience’s attention?
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In the intro
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The act of focusing on a specific stimulus to the exclusion of competing stimuli
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Attention
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What are 4 ways to get an audience’s attention?
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Novelty Personal Experience (Vital) Humor Intensity
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What are the five objectives for an introduction?
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Gain attention 2) Clear Purpose statement 3) Establish significance 4) Establish credibility 5) Preview main points
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What are the 3 objectives for a competent conclusion?
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1) Summarize main points 2) Refer to intro 3) Make a memorable finish
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What is the minimum about of subpoints needed to divide a main point?
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2
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Aspect of outlining states we should have even development on each point?
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Balance
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Is it okay for one main point to have 3 subpoints and another to have 2
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No.
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Aspect of outlining that requires that main points flow directly from purpose statement?
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Coherence
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Where should Main points flow from? subpoints?
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Purpose statement Main point
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Aspect of outlining that requires we commincate finished thoughts in outline/speech
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Completeness
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What are the two most common ways to organize outline? What does each mean
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Topical – Organizing by subject Chronological – Organizing by time
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Which method of organizing speech divides speech by architecture or space, such as left to right, or up-to-down
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Spatial
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Pertaining to organizing speech, dividing the speech on Trump tower into features of each floor would be an example of what
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Spatial
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Pertaining to organizing speech, delves into cause an effect
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Causal
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What types of speeches can causal organization be used for?
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Informative and persuasive
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Pertaining to organizing speech, explore nature of problem and proposes a solution as well
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Problem-Solution/Problem-Cause-Solution
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What would this example be an example of pertaining to speech organization: Purpose Statement – to argue for stricter regulation of the food supply in U.S The food supply in the U.S is often too contaminated More stringest FDA regulations of U.S food would significantly reduce problem
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Problem-Cause-Soluton
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Pertaining to Speech organization, Outlining a choice and comparing which choice or solution is more beneficial.
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Comparative Advantages Pattern
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Pertaining to speech organization, a speech that is organized around a story
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Narrative Approach
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[ertaining to speech organization, used for persuade someone to actually go out and DO something (Example: Purpose – to advocate increased regulation of our food production)
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Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
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What are the FIVE steps of Monroe’s Motivated Sequence?
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Attention Need Satisfaction Visualization Action
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An organizational marker that indicates the structure of a speech and notifies listeners that a particular point is going to be addressed (Example: First… Second…)
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Signpost
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words or phrases to connect what was said with what will be said (Examples: However, moreover)
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Transitions
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What three things should you include in verbal work citations?
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Source, Time, Date
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If you use a statistic in a verbal work citation, should you include a date? Why or why not?
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Yes, because statistics and the relevancy change over time
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Are volume and page numbers necessary in verbal citations?
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no.
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What three things do speakers need to consider when potentially citing a source?
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The Author The Sponsor The Recency
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When citing a source, what it a good time frame to consider?
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5 years
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If there is no clear author but a clear and reputable sponsor such as the Human Society, or the American Cancer Society, what do you do?
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Cite the sponsor or website
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Types of speech: Someone who is leaving or retiring
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Tribute speech
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Types of speech: Meant to commemorate deceased, in narrative form, strong attention getter
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Eulogy
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Types of speech: Inspirational, occurs at graduation
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Commencement
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Types of speech: Presentation that typically occurs at a formal gathering at some group
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After-Dinner Speech
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Types of speech: Happens when receiving an award
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Acceptance Speech
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Types of speech: Introduces audience to featured speaker
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Introduction Speech
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Types of speech: Communicates what the award is for and why receiver is being presented with award
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Speech of Presentation
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Types of speech: Praise or celebrate somone
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Toast (tribute speech)
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Types of speech: Pokes fun at honoree as a way of expressing admiration of attraction
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Roast
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What are two rules to follow for tribute speeches?
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Should Be short Emphasis positive qualities, why they will be missed
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What are 5 objectives of a eulogy
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Capture attention Tell stories of who they are and what reps them Lighthearted, don’t make people more sad Pray for them, not TO them Finish strong, reflect on the person and comfort those who’re grieving
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What’s main point of commencement speech
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Engage/Impart wisdom on listeners
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What is important during after-dinner speeches
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Humor and relevant central point
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What are three bullet points of acceptance speech?
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Should be appreciative, genuine, and humble Express pleasure at receiving an award Thank short list of important people
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What are two objectives of intro speech
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Create interest Remember you are not main point
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How should present award during speech of presentation
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Present with left hand, shake with right
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What are two examples where a tribute speech is appropriate?
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Weddings and Bdays
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What is an important gesture during trivute speeches
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raise glass
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Four essential steps in a roast are…
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Humor Positive Tone Brief Heartfelt Serious Note
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Pertaining to Toulman’s Structure of Argument: That which is asserted and requires support, usually has ‘should’ in it
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Claim
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Pertaining to Toulman’s Structure of Argument: Reasons to accept a claim and the evidence used to support those reasons
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Grounds (evidnce/reasons)
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Pertaining to Toulman’s Structure of Argument: The reasoning that links the grounds to the claim. It is usually implied not stated explicitly. Implied message that connects claim and grounds
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Warrant
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Pertaining to Toulman’s Structure of Argument: the Reasons and relevant evidence that support the warrant
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Backing
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Pertaining to Toulman’s Structure of Argument: Exceptions or refutation that diminish the force of the claim
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Rebuttal
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Pertaining to Toulman’s Structure of Argument:
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Degree to truth to the claim (possible, plausible, probable, highly probable
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Should grounds be opinions or facts?
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Facts
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Reasoning from specific observations or instances to a generalization/conclusion
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Induction
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Determining a general law by using a particular instance as an example
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Deduction
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What three points do styllogism (basic structures of arguments) have?
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Main premise Minor Premise Conclusion
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What is the diff between a valid and a sound argument?
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Valid arguments have conclusions that logically come from premises, even if they are not true Sound arguments must have true premises
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Pertaining to STATISTICS, What are four things we must be careful about p
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questionable statistics self-selected results random sample results accuracy/inaccuracy of predictions
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Name calling that is NOT justified as legitimate, reasonable attack on character
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Ad hominem fallacy
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Name calling justified by evidence
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Ad homenem attacks
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States that when two things are somewhat related, that does not mean that one caused the other
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Causation by Correlation
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Using isolated events to make generalizations
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Hasty generalizations
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What four things are needed in verbal citations?
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1) Source name 2) Year 3) Month 4) Date
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What are some examples of a signpost?
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First Second Third
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What are some examples of a transition?
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Moreover However Also
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What is communication orientation pertaining to speech anxiety?
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What is the purpose of Monroe’s Motivated Sequence?
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To get people to take an action
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What is communication orientation? What is performance orientation?
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Focusing on message of speech, its clarity, and overall what you are saying Focusing on how you look, where you stand, and what your voice sounds like
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What are the four types of tribute speehces?
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Toast, roast, euglogy, commencement
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What is the main purpose of infortmative speeches? Persuasive?
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Teaches/informs Persuades
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What should the relevance statement include?
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A source which support topic and explains it’s relevance to audience
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In formal logic, structure used to come to deduction
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Syllogism
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Which part of Toulmin Structure often contains the word “should”
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Claim
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Which part of Toulmin Structure often is implied and not explicitly state
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Warrant
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Out of the following which one is the claim (Toulim): A) The last three guys she dated were brainy, two had college degrees B) I can and should date Supermodel Jasmine C) She is a supermodel who can date literally anyone she wants D) She dates brainy, average looking guys E) I am a brainy average, looking guy
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B
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Out of the following which one is the grounds (Toulmin): A) The last three guys she dated were brainy, two had college degrees B) I can and should date Supermodel Jasmine C) She is a supermodel who can date literally anyone she wants D) She dates brainy, average looking guys E) I am a brainy average, looking guy
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E
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Out of the following which one is the warrant (Toulmin): A) The last three guys she dated were brainy, two had college degrees B) I can and should date Supermodel Jasmine C) She is a supermodel who can date literally anyone she wants D) She dates brainy, average looking guys E) I am a brainy average, looking guy
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D
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Out of the following which one is the backing (Toulmin): A) The last three guys she dated were brainy, two had college degrees B) I can and should date Supermodel Jasmine C) She is a supermodel who can date literally anyone she wants D) She dates brainy, average looking guys E) I am a brainy average, looking guy
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A
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Out of the following which one is the rebuttal (Toulmin): A) The last three guys she dated were brainy, two had college degrees B) I can and should date Supermodel Jasmine C) She is a supermodel who can date literally anyone she wants D) She dates brainy, average looking guys E) I am a brainy average, looking guy
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C
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Diversionary tactic of attacking the messanger to avoid the message
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Ad Hominem Fallacy
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When are personal attacks NOT ad hominem fallacies, but instead ad hominem attacks?
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When the claim raises issue of person’s credibility, character, or trustworthiness
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What are 5 aspects to practice for development of competent delivery
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1. Eye contact: Connecting with your audience 2. Voice: Developing vocal variety 3. Fluency: Avoiding excessive vocal fillers 4. Speaking rate: Finding the right pace 5. Articulation and pronunciation: Striving for clarity of speech
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What are the four main types of examples?
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Hypothetical Real Brief Extended
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When using statistics, what should we always include? How often should we use them?
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A date Sparingly
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What are 5 bullet points of using statistics competently
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1) Accurate 2) Concrete 3) Comparisons or more than one stat 4) Credible Source 5) Recency