Speech Chp. 9-11

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5 organizational patterns (plus variation of 5th)
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Topical, chronological, spatial, casual, problem-solution (motivated sequence)
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Topical organization
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Organization of the natural divisions in a central idea on the basis of recency, primacy, complexity, or the speaker’s preference
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Primacy
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Arrangement of the ideas in a speech from the most to the least important
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Recency
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Arrangement of the ideas in a speech from the least to the most important
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Complexity
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Arrangement of the ideas in a speech from the simplest to the more complex
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Chronological organization
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Organization by time or sequence
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Types of chronological organization
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Forward in time, how-to (forward in time), backward in time
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Spatial organization
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Organization according to location or direction
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Cause-and-effect organization
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Organization that focuses on a situation and its causes or a situation and its effects
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Types of cause-and-effect organization
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Cause-effect, effect-cause
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Problem-solution organization
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Organization that focuses on a problem and various solutions or a solution and the problems it would solve
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Types of problem-solution organization
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From problem to solution, from solution to problem
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How is U.S. Organization different from other cultures’?
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More linear and direct
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What general purpose are problem-solution speeches best for?
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To persuade
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Strategies for organizing and integrating supporting material
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Primacy or recency, specificity, complexity, “soft” to “hard”
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Soft evidence
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Supporting material based on opinion or inference; includes hypothetical illustrations, descriptions, explanations, definitions, analogies, and opinions
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Hard evidence
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Factual examples and statistics
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Signposts
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Cues about the relationships between a speaker’s ideas
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3 types of signposts
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Transitions, previews, summaries
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Preview
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A statement of what is to come
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Initial preview
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A statement in the introduction of a speech of what the main ideas of the speech will be
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Internal preview
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A statement in the body of a speech that introduces and outlines ideas that will be developed as the speech progresses
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Transition
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A verbal or nonverbal signal that a speaker has finished discussing one idea and is moving to another
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Verbal transition
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A word or phrase that indicates the relationship between two ideas
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Examples of verbal transitions
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In addition, not only, in other words, in summary, therefore, enumeration (first, second, etc.), internal previews/summaries
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What kind of transition backfires; what can you do instead
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One that signals the end of the speech (ex. In conclusion); repeat keyword/phrase, use synonym/pronoun refer to previous idea, final summary, refer to introduction
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Nonverbal transition
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A facial expression, vocal cue, or physical movement that indicates that a speaker is moving from one idea to the next
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Examples of nonverbal transitions
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Pause, change vocal pitch or speaking rate, eye contact
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Summary
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A recap of what has been said
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Types of summaries
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Final and internal
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Final summary
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A restatement of the main ideas of a speech, occurring near the end of the speech
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What is the audience’s last exposure to the main ideas of a speech
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Final summary
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Internal summary
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A restatement in the body of a speech of the ideas that have been developed so far
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What is one way to help audience pick up on signposts?
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Presentation aids (ex. PowerPoint)
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Preparation outline
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A detailed outline that includes main ideas, subpoints, and supporting material and that may also include a speech’s specific purpose, introduction, blueprint, signposts, and conclusion
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Speaking notes
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A brief outline used when a speech is delivered
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Mapping
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Use of geometric shapes to sketch how all the main ideas, subpoints, and supporting material of a speech relate to the central idea and to one another
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How to make a preparation outline
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Organize using mapping/clustering, write in complete sentences, use standard outline form, write and label specific purpose at top, add blueprint/key signposts/intro/conclusion, include references (in proper citation form)
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Standard outline form
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Numbered and lettered headings and subheadings arranged hierarchically to indicate the relationships among the various parts of a speech
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How to do standard outline form
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Use standard outline numbering, use at least 2 subdivisions (if any) for each point, indent main ideas/points/subpoints/supporting material properly
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Standard outline numbering
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I. main idea A. subpoint of I 1. subpoint of A a. subpoint of 1
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Rules for subdivisions
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You cannot split something into 1 part, so if using sudivisions use at least 2. Use no more than 5
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Order of items in preparation outline
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Specific purpose, intro, blueprint, (central idea and preview), outline of the speech body, conclusion, references (signposts throughout)
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How to make speaking notes
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Choose your tech, use standard outline form, include intro and conclusion in abbreviated form, include central idea but not purpose statement, include supporting material and signposts (ex. initial preview), include delivery cues
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What helps you revise your speech
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Preparation outline
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5 functions of an introduction
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Get audience’s attention, give audience a reason to listen, introduce the subject, establish credibility, preview main ideas
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Methods of gaining audience attention (introducing a speech)
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Illustrations/anecdotes, startling facts/statistics, quotations, humor, questions, references to historical/recent events, personal references, references to the occasion, references to preceding speeches
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Proximity
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The degree to which the information affects your listeners directly
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What is a good way to ensure your intro introducs the subject of your speech
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Include a statement of your central idea in the intro
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How to establish credibility
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Be well prepared, appear confident, tell the audience of your personal experience with (or commitment to) your topic
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What should an introdiction be in addition to its 5 functions
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brief
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What can a speaker use in the introduction to give an idea about the main ideas of the speech
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preview statement
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Anecdote
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A brief story that is often based on fact
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Examples of subtle humor
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irony or incredulity
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Rhetorical question
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A question that is intended to provoke thought rather than to elicit an answer
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What do you do when audience responds to a question
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If topic is light, humor. If topic is serious or answer is inappropriate/contrary, “Perhaps most of the rest of you were thinking…” or answer for yourself
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Which intro methods should be paired with other methods or avoided (because they can be a crutch)
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Quotations and questions
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How to deliver a question
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Pause after, eye contact
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Which intro method can establish credibility and show you are knowledgeable
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Reference recent events
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2 functions of a conclusion
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Summarize the speech, provide closer
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How to summarize a speech
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Reemphasize the central idea in a memorable way, restate the main ideas
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Closure
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The quality of a conclusion that makes a speech “sound finished”
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How to provide closure in a conclusion
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Use verbal/nonverbal cues to signal the end of the speech, motivate the audience to respond
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What kind of transition should be avoided and why
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Transitions that state the speech is ending such as “in conclusion” give the audience permission to stop listening
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What is essential to the (persuasive) motivated sequence
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An action step
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What should a call to action use
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Proximity
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Methods for concluding a speech
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Methods also used for intros, references to the intro, inspirational appeals/challenges
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How to reference the introduction
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Finish a story, answer a rhetorical question, remind the audience of startling fact/statistic
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What can inspirational messages at the end of a speech do
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Make the conclusion the climax

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