SPC chap 13,14,15 Essay

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Language
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Any formal system of gestures, signs, sounds, or symbols, used or conceived as a means of communicating thought.
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two different types of meanings that people must be aware of…
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denotative and connotative
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Denotative Meaning
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The common agreed-upon meaning of a word that is often found in dictionaries.
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Connotative meaning
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An individual’s perception suggested by or associated with a word.
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Twelve Ways Oral and Written Language Differ
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1. Oral language has a smaller variety of words. 2. Oral language has words with fewer syllables. 3. Oral language has shorter sentences. 4. Oral language has more self-reference words (I, me, mine). 5. Oral language has fewer quantifying terms or precise numerical words. 6. Oral language has more pseudo quantifying terms (many, few, some). 7. Oral language has more extreme and superlative words (none, all, every, always, never). 8. Oral language has more qualifying statements (clauses beginning with unless and except). 9. Oral language has more repetition of words and syllables. 10. Oral language uses more contractions. 11. Oral language has more interjections (“Wow!,” “Really?,” “No!,” “You’re kidding!”). 12. Oral language has more colloquial and nonstandard words
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considering how to use language effectively in your speech by…
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consider the degree to which the language is appropriate, vivid, inclusive familiar
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Use Appropriate Language
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is the language is suitable or fitting for ourselves, as the speaker; our audience; the speaking context; and the speech itself.
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Vivid language
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Language that helps a listener create strong, distinct, or clearly perceptible mental images. – Two common ways to make your speaking more vivid are through the use of imagery and rhythm.
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Imagery
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The use of language to represent objects, actions, or ideas.
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concrete
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Language that helps an audience see specific realities or actual instances instead of abstract theories and ideas.
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simile
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Figure of speech in which two unlike things are explicitly compared using “like” or “as.”
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metaphor
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Figure of speech where a term or phrase is applied to something in a nonliteral way to suggest a resemblance. ex Love is a battlefield • Upon hearing the charges, the accused clammed up and refused to speak without a lawyer. • Every year a new crop of activists are born.
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Rhythm
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The patterned, recurring variance of elements of sound or speech.
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parallelism
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Presenting ideas in a grammatically parallel fashion. ex. which one sounds better to you: 1. “Give me liberty or I’d rather die.” 2. “Give me liberty or give me death.” 2nd one
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Repetition
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The oral linguistic device where key words or phrases are repeated in an attempt to help audience members recall the words or phrases after the speech.
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Alliteration
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The repeating of two or more words in a series with the same consonant.
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Assonance
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. Form of rhyming pattern where the same vowel sounds are used with different consonants in the stressed syllables
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Inclusive language
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Language that avoids placing any one group of people above or below other groups while speaking.
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category of exclusive versus inclusive language that causes problems for some speakers…
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Disability Sexual Orientation Ethnic Identity Gender-Typed Jobs Use of “Man” Generic “He” Gender-Specific Language
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Inclusive language vs Exclusive Language
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Exclusive Language Inclusive Language Policeman Police officer Businessman Businessperson Fireman Firefighter Stewardess Flight attendant
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Exclusive Language vs. Inclusive Language
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Exclusive Language Inclusive Language Waiters Wait staff / servers Mailman Letter carrier/postal worker Barmaid Bartender
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Ethnic identity
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A group an individual identifies with based on a common culture that is real or assumed.
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Heterosexism
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The presumption that everyone in an audience is heterosexual or that opposite-sex relationships are the only norm.
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six important elements of language and how they affect audience perceptions.
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clarity Economy Obscenity Obscure Language/Jargon Power Variety
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clarity
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The use of language to make sure a speaker’s ideas are understood by an audience, mirroring a speaker’s intent.
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Economy
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The use of only those words necessary to accurately express your idea.
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Obscenity
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. Language that contains curse words or pornographic references.
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Obscure Language
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. Language choices that are not typically understood or known by most of your audience.
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Jargon
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Language that is commonly used by a highly specialized group, trade, or profession.
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Power
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An individual’s ability to get another person to think or behave in a manner the other person would not have done otherwise.
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Variety
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. A speaker’s ability to use and implement a range of different language choices.
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Which of the following is an accurate statement about oral language? a. Oral language has more words than written language. b. Oral language has longer sentences than written language. c. Oral language has more qualifying statements than written language. d. Oral language uses fewer interjections than written language. e Oral language has fewer quantifying terms than written language.
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d. Oral language uses fewer interjections than written language.
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Jenny was conversing with Darlene about her pet rabbit. Jenny grew up in the country and remembers raising rabbits for food for her pet snake, whereas Darlene remembers having pet rabbits her whole life. How are the two differing in their understanding of the word “rabbit?” a. Jenny and Darlene have different metaphors for the word “rabbit.” b. Jenny and Darlene have different assonance for the word “rabbit.” c. Jenny and Darlene have different denotative meanings for the word “rabbit.” d. Jenny and Darlene have the same perception of the word “rabbit.” e. Jenny and Darlene have different connotative meanings for the word “rabbit.”
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e. Jenny and Darlene have different connotative meanings for the word “rabbit.”
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Which of the following is not an example of inclusive language? a. person with disability b. Italian American c. lesbian woman d. handicapped person e. bartender
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d. handicapped person
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During a speech on the history of Colorado, Alban said, “The early pioneers came to Colorado by covered wagon, which traveled at a snail’s pace.” This phrase contains which form of language? a. simile b. metaphor c. assonance d. inclusive language e. immediate juxtaposition
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b. metaphor
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Which of the following phrases is an example of the powerless form of language known as a hesitation? a. “Well, umm, you know that I, err, wish I could go on the trip with you.” b. “Well, I may not be a specialist, but I’ll be glad to help.” c. “I’m really not a pianist, but I can play a few songs.” d. “I may be completely off track, but here goes nothing.” e. “I think that is a great idea, don’t you think so?”
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a. “Well, umm, you know that I, err, wish I could go on the trip with you.”
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Impromptu speaking
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The presentation of a short message without advance preparation. occur when someone is asked to “say a few words” or give a toast on a special occasion
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Extemporaneous speaking
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The presentation of a carefully planned and rehearsed speech using brief notes, spoken in a conversational manner.
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Manuscript speaking
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The word-for-word iteration of a written message. success in this medium depends on two factors: (1) the speaker is already an accomplished public speaker who has learned to use a conversational tone while delivering a prepared script, and (2) the speech is written in a style that sounds conversational.
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Memorized speaking
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The rote recitation of a memorized written message.
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vocal cue
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The subtle but meaningful variations in speech delivery, which can include the use of pitch, tone, volume, and pace.
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lectern
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A small raised surface, usually with a slanted top, where a speaker can place his or her notes during a speech.
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Conversational style
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A speaker’s ability to sound expressive and be perceived by the audience as natural.
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conversational quality
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A speaker’s ability to prepare a speech and rehearse a speech but still sound spontaneous when delivering the speech.
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Eye contact
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A speaker’s ability to have visual contact with everyone in his or her audience.
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Vocalics
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Subfield of nonverbal communication that examines how we use our voices to communicate orally; also known as paralanguage.
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Volume
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The loudness or softness of a speaker’s voice.
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Rate
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the speed at which a person speaks
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Pitch
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The highness or lowness of a speaker’s voice.
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inflections
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Changes in the pitch of a speaker’s voice.
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monotone
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. The vocal quality of staying at a constant pitch level without inflections.
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Pauses
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Brief breaks in a speaker’s deliver designed to show emphasis.
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Vocal variety
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Changes in volume, pitch, rate, and pauses.
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pronunciation
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. The conventional patterns of speech used to form a word.
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articulation
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The ability to clearly pronounce each of a succession syllables used to make up a word.
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substitutions
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Common articulation problem in which a speaker replaces one consonant or vowel with another consonant.
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omissions
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Common articulation problem in which a speaker drops a consonant or vowel within a word.
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distortions
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. Common articulation problem in which a speaker articulates a word in a different or unusual manner usually caused by nasal sounds or slurring of words.
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additions
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Common articulation problem in which a speaker adds consonants or vowels to words
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verbal surrogates
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or “filler” words used as placeholders for actual words (like er, um, uh, etc.
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physical manipulation
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. The use of the body to emphasize meanings or convey meanings during a speech.
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According to Albert Mehrabian, which is the correct breakdown for how humans interpret a speaker’s message? a. 55 percent face, 38 percent vocalics, and 7 percent words b. 93 percent face, 7 percent vocalics, and 0 percent words c. 40 percent face, 40 percent vocalics, and 20 percent words d. 7 percent face, 55 percent vocalics, and 38 percent words e. 38 percent face, 7 percent vocalics, and 55 percent words
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a
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Darlene is preparing a speech for her public speaking class. She goes to the library and does her research. She then prepares a basic outline and creates five notecards with basic ideas to use during her speech. What type of delivery is Darlene using? a. impromptu b. extemporaneous c. manuscript d. memorized e. elocutionis
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b
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Which form of vocalics is concerned with the highness or lowness of someone’s speech? a. pitch b. rate c. volume d. pauses e. pronunciation
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a
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In his speech on landscape architecture, Jimmy uses the word “yaad” instead of the word “yard.” What type of articulation problem does Jimmy exhibit? a. substitution b. omission c. distortion d. addition e. surrogate
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a
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Which of the following is a recommendation for creating and using notes during a speech? a. Include only key words to trigger your memory. b. Read from your notes as much as possible. c. Never show your notes to your audience. d. Write in small letters on your notes so that your audience can’t see them. e. Do not rehearse with your notes or your delivery will become “stale.”
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a
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Effective speech delivery can be summed up in which term? a. vocalics b. physical manipulation c. self-presentation d. conversational quality e. paralanguage
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c
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Presentation aids
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The resources beyond the speech itself that a speaker uses to enhance the message conveyed to the audience
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clarify
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To make clear so that the audience understands your meanings the way you intend.
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emphasis
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To impress the importance or to repeat the verbal message in visual form.
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chart
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A graphical representation of data (often numerical) or a sketch representing an ordered process.
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graph
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A pictorial representation of the relationships of quantitative data using dots, lines, bars, pie slices, and the like.
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representations
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A presentation aid designed to represent a real process or object.
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Diagrams
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Drawing that outlines and explains the parts of an object, process, or phenomenon that cannot be readily seen.
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Objects
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. A tangible, physical item a speaker could hold up and talk about during a speech
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Models
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A three-dimensional re-creation of a physical object
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presentation software
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Software packages that enable a speaker to visually show material through the use of a computer and projector.
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prepared presentation aid
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. A presentation aid designed and created ahead of time to be used as a coherent part of a speech.
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aesthetics
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The beauty or good taste of a presentation aid.
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Polly was in the middle of her speech about the importance of climate change. The presentation aid she shows is a picture outlining where the hole in the earth’s ozone is located. What aspect of audience understanding is Polly hoping to impact with her aid? a. clarifying b. explaining c. amplifying d. emphasizing e. illustrating
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e. illustrating
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Which form of presentation aids are drawings that outline and explain the parts of an object, process, or phenomenon that cannot be readily seen. a. representations b. diagrams c. objects d. charts e. graphs
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b. diagrams
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Which of the following is not true about using black/dry-erase boards as presentation aids? a. Don’t write in complete sentences. b. Never write in cursive. c. Write large enough so everyone in the room can see. d. Make sure your handwriting is legible. e. Black/dry-erase boards are appropriate for every speech context.
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e. Black/dry-erase boards are appropriate for every speech context.
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Which of the following is a tip for effectively using presentation aids? a. Always pass around presentation aids so your audience can view them up close. b. If something happens to your aid, there’s no reason to keep going. c. Speakers don’t need to worry about presentation aid’s aesthetics. d. Aids need to be large enough to be seen by your entire audience. e. Every slide, graphic, and word on a computer presentation should be animated.
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d. Aids need to be large enough to be seen by your entire audience
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Rob is preparing a speech on the D-day invasion during World War II. By researching in the library and online, he has found a really cool book by a British general published soon after the war and a bunch of old pictures. He thinks this is all he needs as source material. By relying only on potentially outdated sources, Rob is likely to sacrifice which important element of informative speaking? a. listener interest b. clarity c. immediacy d. accuracy e. transformation
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d. accuracy
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Rita is struggling to make her speech on wind energy interesting for the audience. You suggest that she consider including pictures of windmills located a few miles from campus and talk about how those windmills help provide power for the lights and heat in your classroom and across campus. Your suggestion focuses on which technique for making information clear and interesting to your audience? a. Personalize the information. b. Limit use of jargon. c. Narrow the topic. d. Adjust the complexity to the audience. e. Use abstract language.
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a. Personalize the information.
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Brooks is thinking of speaking about the National Baseball Hall of Fame and wants to focus on the big induction weekend at the end of July. Brooks is using which topic category? a. people b. objects c. events d. processes e. concepts
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c. events
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Connie wants to speak about the local school budget. She knows most of her audience thinks that their local property taxes pay for all the educational expenses in the community, but she wants to show them that the state actually pays for more than 30 percent of the costs. According to Rowan, Connie should strongly consider using which type of explanation to develop her topic? a. elucidating explanation b. quasi-scientific explanation c. transformative explanation d. concrete explanation e. abstract explanation
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c. transformative explanation

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