SOL 7 Byzantine Empire and Russia Study Guide

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
– the original Greek name of the city of Constantinople.
– after being renamed it became the capital of the Roman Empire and later the Byzantine Empire

– originally called Byzantium, this city is located on a peninsula that protrudes into the Bosporus.
– Named after Emperor Constantine in 324 CE
– Became the capital of Rome in 330 CE
– Major center for trade due to location on the black sea and Bosporus.
– Remains the center of the Byzantine Empire until 1453 when it falls to the Ottoman Turks
– Helped preserve Greek and Roman culture.

– strait that connects the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.
– Constantinople jutted out into this small body of water allowing the city to controll trade between Eastern and Western powers.

Natural Harbors
– areas that can shelter ships from the sea that occur naturally with the position of rock formations.
– Constantinople had many of these, making it easy for ships to dock for trade and also to protect ships from the elements and invaders.

– to have made strong or to have strengthened.
– used to describe the city of Constantinople as it had large walls built on all sides to keep invaders out.

Greco-Roman Culture
– sometimes referred to as Classical Culture
– combination of ideas from both Roman and Greece cultures.
– preserved in the East (Byzantine Empire) during the dark ages by Byzantine, Church , and Islamic scholars.
– reintroduced to western europe during the Renaissance.
– Includes art, political ideas, architecture, literature, and even scientific ideas.

-the activity of protecting something from loss or danger
– Byzantine, Church, and Islamic scholars did this for Greco-Roman culture, including law codes

Code of Justinian / Justinian’s Code
– recodification of Roman laws completed by Justinian and his advisors.
– preserved Roman law for later Western European and even American goverments

– to classify
– used to record and organize laws
– Justinian did this to Roman Laws helping preserve them in the act.

Emperor Justinian
– Byzantine Emperor from 527 to 565 CE
– Helped reconquer parts of the former Western Roman Empire
– Had the Hagia Sophia constructed
– Recodified and organized Roman Laws
– Helped spread Christianity in the Byzantine Empire

Hagia Sophia
– Massive Eastern Orthodoxnchurch built in the City of Constantinople by the Emperor Justinian, one of his many public works project
– Had large domed ceiling
– Turned into a mosque after Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Turks in 1453

Great Schism
– the split in the Christian religion that occured in 1054
– left Christianity divided into two denominations, Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox
– Caused over debates over the church’s role in politics, the doctrine of the church, and the power heirarchy of the church.

Eastern Orthodox Church
– Dominant form of Christianity in the Byzantine Empire.
– Originially centered in the city of Constantinople.
– Officially recognized independant from the Chruch in Rome in 1054.
– Type of Christianity adopted by the Russian Empire.
– Liked by secular leaders because unlike the Roman Catholic church it supported the idea of secular leaders having more power thatn religious leaders.
– used greek at mass, allowed lesser clergy to marry, believed that all bishops were equal.

Roman Catholic Church
– developed in Western Europe after the Great Schism in 1054
– Eventually became centered in the city of Rome
– used latin only in mass, clergy were celibate (unable to marry), the Pope (bishop of Rome) was seen as the supreme head of the Church.
– believed that the Pope had more authority than secular leaders.
– became the only uniting force in Western Europe after the Fall of the Roman Empire in 476 CE. Being Christian was the one thing western Europeans would have in common.
– dominates Western Europe for 1000 years until the Reformation in the early 1500s

Pope / Bishop of Rome
– leader of the Roman Catholic Church
– believed to have direct communication with God by members of the Church
– only member of the clergy that is allowed to change church doctrine and interpret the scripture.
– holds power over secular leaders and can therefore influence political happens in western europe.

Patriarch of Constantinople
– came to be the leader of the Eastern Orthodox Church
– seen as an equal in power with the bishops of the 4 other major eastern cities (Like Moscow)
– seen as having less power than secular leaders, so he could guide the church but not political policy in the Empire

– to be formally kicked out of the Christian Church
– to be barred from partaking in the sacraments (ex: marriage, last rites, communion)
– Both the head of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church excommunicated the other in 1054, in an event known now as the Great Schism

– to go against Church laws
– some believed that the use of Icons violated the 2nd commandment, making those that use icons this.

Council of Nicaea
– Gathering of clergy from both Eastern and Western Churches whose purpose was to determine (among other things) whether icons were allowed to be used or not.
– Determined that the use of Icons was okay because one revering the icon was in fact honoring the idea behind the image… not the image itself.

Pope Leo III
– leader of the Catholic Church that crowned Charlemagne, Holy Roman Emperor
– caused conflict between the Byzantine Empire that the Catholic Church, which helped contribute to the Great Schism.

– religious images including statues, mosaics, and painting for religious figures or stories
– used by the Church for decoration and to help teach Christian ideas and teaching to those that could not read.
– believed by many in the east to violate the 2nd Commandment, seen as Idols.
– became a hot point and contributed to the Great Schism

– people in the Byzantine Empire that disagreed with the use of Icons, and therefore went about smashing them.
– supporters on Emperor III

– artwork created by placing small pieces of stone, tile, glass, or other objects in cement to form a larger image.
– Byzantine Empire was famous for their use of these in Churches on the floors and walls.
– often depicted religious images

Onion Domes
– architectual feature popular in the Byzantine Empire
– domes that are smaller at the bottom, balloon out in the middle and then narrow to a point.
– used in Eastern Orthodox Churches
– adopted by Eastern European countries (Slavic groups)
– eventually style makes it way to India.

Cyrillic Alphabet
– developed for the Slavic people by a monk named Cyril (and his companion Methodius)
– Slavic had only been a spoken language until the invention of this item
– helped spread christianity to Russia as once it was created the Bible was able to be written in Slavic.
– Still used today.

Saint Cyril
– Orthodox Christian Monk that helped develop an alphabet for Slavic languages.
– his mission worked helped lay the foundation for Orthodox Christianity in Russia.

– wife of the Emperor Justinian.
– encouraged her husband to look at women’s rights and helped improve the condition of women’s lives in the Empire
– credited with giving Justinian the courage to stay in Constantinople and fight off rebellions early in his reign.

Ottoman Turks
– Large and powerful Muslim group that captures Constantinople in 1453 CE
– Convert the Hagia Sophia to a Mosque

1453 CE
– year in which the Byzantine Empire Falls to the Ottoman Turks
– Muslims capture the city of Constantinople

565 CE
– The death of Justinian
– The height of the Byzantine Empire’s expansion

Greek Language
– used by most common people in the Byzantine Empire, so we can consider it the vernacular.
– Primary language used during masses in the Eastern Orthodox Church
– An example of the influence of Greece in the region long after its height of power.

Latin Language
– Official language used by the Byzantine government.
– Influence from Rome as all Roman laws and religious material were written in this language.

Empress Irene
– Powerful female ruler of the Byzantine Empire (1st female ruler)
– came to power as the Wife of Constantine V, had her son injured/killed so she could maintain her power after Constantine V dies.
– noted for her role in a conflict with Charlemagne and Pope Leo III over the title “Holy Roman Empire” and disputed land in the Balkans.

– peninsula in Northern Europe that hangs down over the continent.
– Home of the Vikings, and believed to be where the Rus came from.

– upper class of Russian / slavic society
– usually limited to those of Viking descent.
– also known as nobles

Czar / Tsar
– Russian / Slavic word for King
– Shows the connection between the newly developed Russian Empire and Rome
– Adopted term by Ivan III of Moscow

– Rus leader that is said to have been offered the kingship by the Slavic people.
– story recorded in the primary chronicle
– helps establish viking dominance in the region

Ruthless invaders of western Europe who are believed to have eventually settled in Russia; also known as the Norse or Norsemen

Vladimir I
Russian Prince who converted to Eastern Orthodox Christianity making it the official religion of Russia

Invaders from central Asia who eventually took over Russia leading it into a period of isolation from Western Europe. Eventually defeated by Ivan the Great

important Russian city due to its river access to the Byzantine Empire

capital city of Russia

people from north of the Baltic Sea who eventually settled in Russia

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