Sociology:Chapter 16

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social change
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alteration, modification, or transformation of public policy, culture, or social institutions over time
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collective behavior
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voluntary, often spontaneous activity that is engaged in by a large number of people and typically violates dominant group norms and values
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Likelihood collective behavior will occure
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1. structural factors that increase the chances of people responding in a particular way 2. timing 3. breakdown in social control mechanisms and a corresponding feeling of normlessness
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crowd
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relatively large number of people who are in one anothers immediate vicinity
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mass
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number of people who share an interest in a specific idea or issue but who are not in anothers immediate vicinity
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casual crowds
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people who happen to be in the same place at the same time.
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conventional crowds
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people who come together for a scheduled event and share a common focus
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expressive crowds
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people releasing emotions with others who experience similar emotions
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acting crowds
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collectivities so intensely focused that they may erupt into violent behavior
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mob
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highly emotional crowd whose members engage in, or are ready to engage in, violence against a specific target-a person, a category of people, or physical property. lynching, bombing, hanging, and hate crimes
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riot
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violent crowd behavior that is fueled by deep seated emotions but not directed at one specific target
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panic
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form of crowd behavior that occurs when a large number of people react to a real or perceived threat with strong emotion and self destructive behavior
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protest crowds
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crowds that engage in activities intended to achieve political goals
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civil disobedience
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nonviolent action that seeks to change a policy or law by refusing to comply with it
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Contagion theory
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people are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior in a crowd because they are anonymous and feel invulnerable. Le Bon asserted that emotions such as fear and hate are contagious in crowds because people experience a decline in personal responsibility; they will do things as a collectivity that they would never do when acting alone \”collective mind\”
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Social unrest and circular reaction
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the discontent of one person is communicated to another who reflects it back to the first person
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convergence theory
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Focuses on the shared emotions, goals, and beliefs people bring to crowd behavior (turner and killian, 1993). People with similar attributes find a collectivity of like-minded persons with whom they can express their underlying personal tendencies.
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emergent norm theory
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Crowds develop their own definition of the situation and establish norms of behavior that fits the occasion
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mass behavior
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collective behavior that takes place when people (who often are geographically seperated from one another) respond to the same event in much the same way
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rumors
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unsubstantiated reports on an issue or subject
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gossip
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refers to rumors about the personal lives of individuals
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public opinion
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consists of the attitudes and beliefs communicated by ordinary citizens to decision makers
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propaganda
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information provided by individuals or groups that have vested interest in furthering their own cause or damaging an opposing one
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social movement
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an organized group that acts consciously to promote or resist change through collective action
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reform movements
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seek to improve society by changing some specific aspect of the social structure
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revolutionary movements
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seeking to being about a total change in society
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religious movements/expressive movements
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social movements that seek to produce radical change in individuals and based on spiritual or supernatural belief systems
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alternative movements
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movements that seek limited change in some aspect of peoples behavior
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resistance/regressive movements
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seek to prevent change or to undo change that has already occured
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Stages in social movements
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preliminary/insipiency stage coalescence stage institutionalization/bureaucratization stage
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preliminary/insipiency stage
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unrest present as people begin to become aware of the problem. leaders emerge to agitate others into taking action
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coalescence stage
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people begin to organize and to publicize the problem. some movements become formally organized at local and regional levels
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institutionalization/bureaucratization stage
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organizational structure develops and a paid staff begins to lead the group. initial zeal and idealism of members may diminish as administrators take over management of the organizations. early grassroots supporters drop out
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relative deprivation theory
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people who are discontent when they compare their achievements with those of others consider themselves relatively deprived and join social movements in order to get what they view as their \”fair share\”, especially when there is an upswing in the economy followed by a decline
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value added theory
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certain conditions are necessary for a social movement to develop: 1. structural conduciveness 2. structural strain 3. spread of generalized belief 4. precipitating factors 5. mobilization of action 6. social control factors
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resource mobilization theory
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variety of resources are necessary for social movement; people participate only when they feel the movement has access to these resources
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social constructionist theory: Frame analysis
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based on the assumption that social movements are a interactive, symbolically defined, and negotiated process involving participants, opponents, and bystanders, frame analysis is used to determine how people assign meaning to activities and processes in social movements
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diagnostic framing
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identifies a problem and attributes blame or causality to some group or entity so that the social movement has a target for its actions
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prognostic framing
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pinpoints possible solutions or remedies, based on the target previously identified
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motivational framing
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provides a vocabulary of motives that compel people to take action
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political opportunity theory
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people will choose the options for collective action that are most readily available to them and those options that will produce the most favorable outcome for their cause
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new social movement theory
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the focus is on sources of social movements, including politics, ideology, and culture. race, class, gender sexuality, and other sources of identity are also factors in movements such as ecofeminism and environmental justice
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ecofeminism
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based on belief that patriarchy is a root cause of environmental problems
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environmental racism
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the belief that a disproportionate number of hazardous facilities are placed in low income areas populated by people of color

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