Sociology Vocab Ch. 4

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social structure
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network of interrelated statuses and roles that guide human interaction
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status
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socially defined position in a group or in a society
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role
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the behavior expected of someone occupying a particular status
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ascribed status
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based on a persons inherited traits
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achieved status
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aquired by individuals through their own direct efforts
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master status
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the status that plays the greatest role in shaping a persons life and determining his or her social identity
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reciprocal roles
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corresponding roles that define the patterns of interaction between related statuses
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role expectations
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the socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role
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role performance
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actual role behavior
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role set
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the different roles attached to a single status
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role conflict
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occurs when fulfilling the role expectations of one status makes it difficult to fulfill the role expectations of another status
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role strain
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occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the role expectations on a single status
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social institution
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when statuses and roles are organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society
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exchange
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when people interact in an effort to recieve a reward or return
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reciprocity
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the idea that if you do something for someone, that person owes you something in return
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exchange theory
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the volume of exchange in daily interactions
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competition
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occurs when 2 or more people or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal only one can attain
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conflict
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deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone, or to harm another person
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cooperation
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occurs when 2 or more people or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one person
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accomodation
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a state of balance between cooperation and conflict
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group
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set of people who interact on a basis of shared expectations and who posess some degree of common identity
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subsistence strategies
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the way a society uses technology to provide for the needs of its members
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preindustrial society
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when food production is the main economic activity
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hunting and gathering societies
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daily collection of wild plants and hunting of wild animals
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pastoral society
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rely on domesticated herd animals to meet their food needs
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division of labor
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the specialization by individuals or groups in the performance of specific economic activities
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horticultural society
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when fruits and vegtables grown in the garden are the main source of food
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agricultural society
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when animals are needed to pull plows to till the fields
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barter
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the exchange of a good or service
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industrial societies
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when the emphasis shifts from the production of food to the productions of manufactured goods
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urbanization
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the concentration of the population in cities
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postindustrial societies
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when much of the economy is involved in providing information and services
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mechanical solidarity
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when people share the same values and perform the same tasks, the become united in a common whole
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organic solidarity
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the impersonal social relationships that arise with increases job specialization
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gemeinschaft
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community
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gesellschaft
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society
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aggregate
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when people gather at the same place at the same time but lack organization
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social category
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a means of classifying people according to a shared trait or a common status
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dyad
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a group with two members
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triad
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3 person group
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small group
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few enough members that everyone is able to interact on a face to face basis
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formal group
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the structures, goals, and activities of the group are clearly defined
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informal group
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no official structure or established rules of conduct
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primary group
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small group of people who interact over a relatively long period of time on a direct and personal basis
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secondary group
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a group in which interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature
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reference group
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any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they adopt
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in group
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the group that a person belongs to and identifies with
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out group
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any group that a person does not belong to or identify with
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e-community
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people interact with one another regularly on the internet
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social network
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the web of relationships that is formed by the sum total od a persons interactions with other people
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leaders
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people who influence the attitudes and opinions of others
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instrumental leaders
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task-oriented
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expressive leaders
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emotion oriented
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formal organization
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a large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals
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bureaucracy
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ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures
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rationality
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involves subjecting every feature of human behavior to calculation, measurement, and control
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voluntary association
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a nonprofit organization formed to pursue some common interest
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iron law of oligarchy
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tendency of organizations to become increasingly dominated by small groups of people

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