Sociology Unit 2
Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Mobility that is inevitable form changes in the economy
the prestige of a person’s first job out of school factors into his or her position
Hegel argues that notions of inequality are constantly evolving in a larger historical arc and will eventually lead to
term that refers to the notion that everyone is created equal in the eyes of God
A subsystem of stratification that Mills mentions is the other fringes of the power elite
individuals who count in the decisions that affect all of us, but who don’t actually make those decisions
a system in which advancement is based on individual achievement or ability
Provide Family Planning
one of the best ways to reduce the number of children born (according to Sachs)
Horizontal Social Mobility
this term refers to a group or an individual transitioning from one social status to another that is situated more or less on the same rung of the ladder
this group exploits the working class by taking more of the value of the work of laborers than they repay in wages
C.Write Mills argues that there are three major institutions in the United States today that have the power to make decisions for the masses. This is not one of these
From Malthus’s perspective, what keeps the population in check?
Equality of Outcome
Which standard of equality is most concerned with the distribution of resources?
Ferguson and Millar saw social developments resulting form the establishment of private property as representing a huge improvement in society because private property leads to higher degrees of social organization
Professionals, small business owners, and craftsmen are referred to as
Elliot Essman asserts that America is a _______ because the very wealthy do not have much impact on the country in general
Economists and sociologists believe that the United States is stratified along what lines?
Pareto believed in a society in which status and mobility are based on individual attributes and ability
Rousseau believed that the source of all social ills was
Equality of Opportunity
The game of Monopoly follows the rules of what standard of equality
Individuals who count in the decisions that affect all of us, but who don’t actually make those decisions
a subsystem of stratification that Mills mentions is the outer fringes of the power elite
according to the Relative Social Prestige of Selected U.S. Occupations table, which white-collar occupation has the highest prestige score?
an example of the ideology of equality of condition put into practice
Marx and Rousseau agreed that this was the primary source of social ills in society
sociologists often describe an individual’s position in a stratified social order that attempts to classify groups, individuals, families, or households in terms of indicators such as occupation, income, wealth, and education
Returns on investments
the primary source of income for the upper class
trade of goods and services across national boundaries, as well as the mobility of businesses and labor through immigration
under what system is your societal position related to your position in the economic market?
The government’s definition of poverty for a family of four is a total yearly salary of just under
According to Rousseau, there are two forms of inequality: ______, or natural, and _______, or political
Low-wage service work
which American job sector has greatly increased since the oil crisis of 1973?
Elite-Mass Dichotomy System
a stratification system with a governing elite- that is, few leaders who broadly hold the power in society
According to the German philosopher Hegel, the master-slave relationship is one of mutual _____
the examination of how race and ethnicity affect income is really an examination of _____
The population Oscar Lewis was studying when he coined the term “culture of poverty”
A practice that supports the culture of poverty argument
According to Daniel Patrick Moynihan, this is the root cause of African Americans’ economic problems
Culture of Poverty
People who are born into poverty and ultimately raise their own children in poverty learn “how” to live in poverty. They learn the norms and values associated with that particular way of life. This is known as Oscar Lewis’s ______
Income-based measurements are deceptive because they hide the real influence of ____
Along with the media, it gives us goals that are unreachable for must of us, thus plunging us into debt
How does status consumption affect poverty?
Provide universal day care
One strategy that might allow more women to join the workfoce, as suggest by Al Gore and other leftists would be able to ______
They can’t get to the government offices administering food stamps during operating hours
A lot of poeple who are eligible for food stamps in the United States doesn’t apply for them. Why?
The Moving to Opportunity study didn’t answer the poverty question because which factor remained constant?
Objective analyses of statistics and economics
What method is usually used to evaluate poverty?
Increased their commitment to work
An economist survey lottery winners found that people who had zero earnings and who were not in the workforce before winning _____
When the official poverty line was first set, food made up the largest percentage of household budgets. In today’s society, what now makes up the largest percentage?
Gate communities are examples of which actor that is mixing with wealth inequality to increase the gap between the rich and the poor?
Which term describes the measurement of poverty where a household’s income falls below the necessary level to purchase food to physically sustain its members?
We colonized others within the country itself, as with slavery
One of the explanations of continued racism in America is _____
Feelings of incompetence
Your text mentions outcomes that people believe stem from receiving welfare. Which of the following is NOT a result mentioned in your text?
They hold poor people back
According to the culture of poverty theory, what happens once survival adaptions are in one place?
The median income in a given location, and anything under that number is considered poverty
Theorists who believe poverty is relational measure poverty by determining ______
the United States
Which nation has one of the highest poverty rates in the advanced world?
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act
Which program shifted more of the responsibility of running welfare programs onto individual states and mandated time limits for the number of months a person can receive aid?
Objectives analyses of statistics and economics
What method is usually used to evaluate poverty?
James Rosenbaum (2000) found that the people most likely to benefit form being moved from low-income, ghetto neighborhoods were the ______
Lopsided economic rewards
According to your text, what drives American poverty rates?
What term do economists used to describe the relative value of present consumption versus future savings?
Their behavioral problems decreased
A study of Cherokee children whose income greatly increased due to legalized gambling on reservations found that ______
The median income in a given location, and anything under that is considered poverty
Theorists who believe poverty is relational measure poverty by determining _______
Your chance of getting a job is greatly increased
If you were unemployed and won a modest amount of money in the lottery (say, $20,000 a year), research suggest that ______
Which of the following is a practice that supports the culture of poverty argument?
Aiding the poor creates more problems than it solves
What do policy experts mean by the terms perverse incentives and unintended consequences?
Your text defines poverty as a condition of deprivation due to ______
William Julius Wilson believe that there were factors other than welfare that led to a lack of inner-city job opportunities. What is not a factor if this?
A Perverse Incentive
some policy experts believe that welfare creates more problems than it solves because it discourages people from finding work. This is known as ______
The definition of relative poverty takes into account which important factor when determining poverty based on a percentage of median income?
The exchange of time, money, and resources
As discussed with the culture of poverty theory, the adaptive practice of “swapping” is ______
England, beginning in the late 1700s
Attempts at establishing an absolute poverty measure can be traced to ____
The official poverty line
Mollie Orshansky used the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s recommendations for the minimum amount of healthy food, estimated the cost for a variety of family types, and multiplied this figure by a factor of three to measure
has changed over time
the concept of race
the majority of Latinos in the United States have immigrated here within the last ____ years
Light skin over darker skin
Johann Caspar Lavater suggested that outside appearances were connected to inner virtues. He tended to value
Which term refers to the more overt form of resistance through a movement such as revolution or genocide or through nonviolent protest?
Which minority group has the highest percentage of males in prison?
In 1907, the United States barred immigration from what country, because its people were seen as a threat to the American-born labor force?
Which term refers to the belief that members of separate races possess different and unequal traits?
race is not a fixed biological or natural reality; rather, it is ________
has important social influence
Although race has no deterministic, biological basis, it still
modern racial thinking developed in the mid-seventeenth century in parallel with three global changes. Which of the following is NOT one of these global changes?
Protect the nation
Nativists believe that restricting the immigration of certain groups would
About 35% of Muslims worldwide were born in
Muslims have recently (since 9/11) undergone a new racial identity, from being formally unnoticed as a group to being singled out for more discrimination. This is known as
The genetic variation that corresponds with geographic origins in much _____ than people commonly believe
Ethnocentrism classified nonwhites as abnormal and inferior to help justify
competition for housing and employment in the North, resulting in violent clashes between whites and blacks
during the mid-twentieth century in the United States, many blacks moved north to escape Jim Crow Laws in the rural South. This resulted in
Clifford Geertz used what term to describe the fact that ethnic ties remained even after people assimilated?
Under Johann Caspar Lavater’s theory of ____, people with light skin were thought to have higher intellect
Robert Park’s model explains the universally progressive pattern in which immigrants arrive, settle in, and achieve full assimilation in a newly homogeneous country. His model is called
Compared with 11% of the U.S. population as a whole, around 33% of Native Americans die before age
Which group believed that humans were one species, united under God?
Thoughts and feelings (usually negative) about an ethnic or racial group are referred to as
Has important social influence
although race has no deterministic, biological basis, it still
in the majority
A society is pluralistic if no one ethnic group is statistically
Which group believed that different races were distinct species?
an 1851, excerpt from Harper’s Weekly magazine describes a certain racial group as lawbreaking, idle, thriftless, poor, and barbarian. What group is this excerpt describing?
What allows one to identify with a nationality without the rights and duties of a citizen?
African Americans often turn to _____ when they are attempting to be accepted by the dominant group. This means acting differently with the dominant group
The differences between race and ethnicity underscore the privilege positions of _____ in America, who have the freedom to pick and choose their identities and freely show their ethnic backgrounds
Immigration Act of 1924
Which act formalized the exclusive definition of whiteness by imposing immigration restricts based on a national origins quota system that limited the yearly number of immigrants from each country?
Although we now know all humans are the same species, there is still an underlying belief that we can trace specific traits thorough
prejudice is to discrimination as thinking is to
high homeowner association dues
the black ghetto was manufactured by whites through a set of deliberate, conscious practices. Which of the following is NOT one of the practices mentioned in your book?
Black and white
When the term race comes up in America today, we usually think in two colors
May not be stable
By looking at anthropological findings in tribal societies, sociologists can see fluidity in gender, which helps us see that the boundaries within our own system of gender _______
jobs that have been feminized, such as teaching or secretarial work, are also referred to as _____
until 1973, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association listed homosexuality as
connect our day-to-day experiences to larger social forces
according to Robert Merton, “middle-range” theories are useful because they
Parson’s sex role theory
which theory might argue that “it is beneficial for society as a whole when men and women stick to their ‘normal’ roles”?
Invisible because it is regarded as the norm
similar to hegemonic masculinity, social problems that exist within a dominant group in a society tend to be
what is the term that refers to desire, sexual preference, sexual identity, and behavior?
are accorded higher value than those done by women
under the sex/gender system, men universally perform the kinds of tasks that
teens believe if they don’t climax they will not get an STD
your text mentions several reasons why American teenagers are rapidly spreading STDS. Which of the following is NOT one of these reasons?
are expected to be better at reading
In the classroom, compared to boys, girls _____
egalitarian relationships will be possible
Feminist psychoanalyst Nancy Chodorow believes that if men share mothering with women, then ______
Gender structures social relationships between people unequally. This is a statement that would be support by which group?
nature and nurture
the study of gender is basically the study of how two spheres shape each other. What are the two spheres?
math and physics
although women now outnumber men in terms of college enrollment, men still dominate which fields?
these jobs are not attractive to men
What argument do Reskin and Roos use to support the reason women end up in lower-paid jobs?
the dominant privileged, and often invisible category of men at any point in history
Hegemonic masculinity can best be described as
a girl who is a cheerleader and acts unanimated and unenthusastic
Sociologist Cynthia Fuchs Epstein argues that deceptive distinctions are those sex differences that arise out of the roles individuals occupy, rather than from some innate force. Which of the following is NOT an example of deceptive distinctions?
When token men enter feminized jobs, they enjoy a quicker rise to leadership positions. This is referred to as
when men enter female-dominated occupations, they often become victims of sexual harassment
It is argued in your text that gender structures social relationships by giving men the advantage in society. Which of the following is the LEAST likely to happen?
the dominant, privileged, and often invisible category of men at any point in history
Hegemonic masculinity can best be described as
play more cooperative and people-based games
Carol Gilligan found that boys and girls played differently on the playground. In comparison to boys, girls tended to ______
What term refers to the invisible barriers women face when they enter more prestigious corporate worlds?
Patricia Hill Collins claims that gender intersects with race, class, nationality, and religion. Which group has made the case that early liberal feminism was largely by, about, and for white middle-class women?
social discomfort and fear of difference
Why do parents and surgeons push to assign a sex to a genitally ambiguous child?
it viewed sexuality as falling on a continuum, thus challenging the psychiatric claim of homosexuality as “abnormal”
Alfred Kinsey’s 1948 study, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, is important because
a social institution
According to Judith Lorber, differences between the sexes are not easy to explain because gender isn’t natural, but rather is ________
Which theoretical perspective argues that gender is a product of social interactions, and that by “doing gender” men and women create and contribute to the gendered patterns we see?
sex and gender are two sides of the same coin and are thus inseparable
Feminist philosopher Elizabeth Grosz proposed that we view the relationship between sex (the natural) and gender (the social) as existing on a Mobius strip because
existence of male/female teams in sports
this does not call into question the two firm categories of sex and gender that dominate our thinking
a quiet and “nerdy” intellectual who enjoyed writing poetry
Michael Kimmel found that in the eighteenth century, the ideal man was very different than the modern-day ideal man. The ideal man in the 1700s was