Sociology Test #3 pt 1

question

The belief by many Americans that they actually contribute to major governmental decisions through the power of their vote is referred to by Hellinger and Judd as ________.
answer

the democratic facade
question

What region of the United States has the highest clustering of people in poverty?
answer

the South
question

Changes in society that cause large numbers of people to move up or down the class ladder, which causes one class to increase while others decrease, is called ________ mobility.
answer

structural
question

When used by sociologists, the term \”wealth\” refers to ________.
answer

the property owned and the income acquired minus debts made by the person
question

The class recognized by Kahl and Gilbert as being the upper middle-class in America comprises approximately ________ percent of the U.S. population.
answer

15
question

Which of the following family names is a member of the \”nouveau riche\”?
answer

the Gates family, who founded Microsoft
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What is the relationship between births to single women and their level of education?
answer

the greater the level of education, the fewer births to single women
question

What is the average per capita annual income in the United States, which includes all Americans, and even children?
answer

$42,000
question

Which of the following statements is most accurate with respect to determining social prestige in modern society?
answer

One’s occupational title is the greatest influence in determining social prestige.
question

Politically, the class of people who are more likely to feel that the government should intervene in the economy to make citizens financially secure are the ________.
answer

working class
question

Numerically, what is the race of the majority of the poor in the United States?
answer

white
question

Which statement regarding the nation’s income is most accurate?
answer

The top 20 percent of Americans earn nearly half the income.
question

There were much-publicized myths of the late 1800s that centered around the rags-to-riches exploits of fictional boy heroes. These myths were perpetuated by their author, ________.
answer

Horatio Alger
question

What group of Americans does the author characterize as being the \”fallout\” of the postindustrial economy?
answer

the homeless
question

Who was the sociologist who expanded upon the concept of the power elite to note that no major decision of the United States government was made without its approval?
answer

William Domhoff
question

John worked at a steel mill for 25 years. A recessionary economy and competition with foreign steelmakers forced the closing of the mill. At the age of 45, John is unable to find work in his town, lives in poverty, and must go on welfare. What is the most likely cause of John’s poverty?
answer

Changes in the social structure are the most likely cause.
question

The occupation with the highest prestige in the United States is a ________.
answer

physician
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What are the four variables Gilbert and Kahl used to develop a six-class model to reflect the class structure of the United States and other capitalist countries?
answer

education, power, property, prestige
question

To determine the poverty line, the U.S. government calculates a low-cost food budget for a family of a specific size, then subjects that number to which modification?
answer

It multiplies the food budget by three.
question

________ are the most likely segment of the population in the United States to experience poverty today.
answer

Children
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What was the term C. Wright Mills used to refer to those who make the big decisions in American society?
answer

The power elite
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What did Higginbotham and Weber discover about women from working-class backgrounds who now occupied professional, managerial, and administrative positions in Memphis?
answer

They were encouraged by their parents to get an education.
question

What is the relationship between social class and the likelihood of embracing deferred gratification?
answer

The higher one’s social class, the more likely they will embrace deferred gratification.
question

Phil, a janitor for an expensive apartment-house complex in Chicago, is a union janitor who makes quite a bit more money than many of the tenants in the building he maintains. Lenski would note that Phil’s high income but low occupational prestige demonstrates a condition of ________.
answer

status inconsistency
question

Jeanann and her two children recently went on welfare. Research indicates that it is likely that Jeanann and her children will be in poverty ________.
answer

for a year or less
question

The trend in the United States in which most poor families are headed by women is called ________.
answer

the feminization of poverty
question

If 100 working-class people move upward on the class ladder and, at the same time, 100 middle-class people move downward, sociologists would consider this an example of ________ mobility.
answer

exchange
question

Janelle is a professor in the Department of Business at a state university. She is a full professor in her department and earns $135,000 a year. According to Lenski’s status inconsistency hypothesis, what is Janelle’s most likely political philosophy?
answer

conservative
question

Jim and Jan are working-class Americans making a combined income of $47,000. Today they won a $125 million lottery. How will this immediately impact their lives?
answer

They will experience anomie.
question

What is the strongest variable in developing correlations to which social groups are in poverty?
answer

race/ethnicity
question

Which of the following statements is most accurate with respect to determining social prestige in modern society?
answer

One’s occupational title is the greatest influence in determining social prestige.
question

As a full professor of sociology, Jackie ranks high in prestige, but relatively low in income. What can one expect of her political views?
answer

She will be more politically radical.
question

Ken belongs to a church in which the worship services are highly expressive with spontaneous \”Amens\” and \”Praise Jesus\” outbursts accompanied by loud, inspirational organ music. Ken is most likely a member of the ________ class.
answer

lower
question

Jacob is single, 40 years old and living in government-subsidized housing. He does not want to pursue regular employment because he feels there are other members of society who need the work more than he does. Jacob’s situation is an example of which of the following explanations of why people are poor?
answer

the characteristics of individuals
question

What is Durkheim’s term for a condition in which people become detached from the norms that guide their behavior?
answer

anomie
question

What did the research by Kohn suggest as being the primary influence upon parents that emphasized how they reared their children?
answer

the parents’ occupations
question

Which general explanation of poverty focuses on the discrimination and changes in the job market?
answer

social structure explanations
question

Which of the following individuals would have the narrowest field of \”eligible\” marriage partners based on background expectations?
answer

Christian, the son of a CEO of a major corporation
question

What is the background profile of most United States presidents?
answer

millionaire white men from families with old money
question

What is the relationship between one’s social class and one’s chances of being a victim of crime?
answer

inverse
question

What does status inconsistency refer to in relation to social stratification?
answer

Individuals are ranked high on one dimension of social class and low on other dimensions.
question

What is the typical annual family income in the United States?
answer

$60,000
question

Which sociologist coined the term \”the power elite\”?
answer

C. Wright Mills.
question

Based on the Marxist orientation of conflict sociologists, how many distinct social classes exist?
answer

Two
question

Based on the average of 60 nations, what three occupations enjoy the highest prestige ratings?
answer

college president, Supreme Court judge, astronaut
question

When individuals experience status inconsistency, what is their likely choice of behavior?
answer

They will claim the higher status.
question

Ruth owns the Head 2 Toe Boutique where she employs 15 workers. According to Erik Wright’s model of social class, Ruth would be classified as a(n) ________.
answer

petty bourgeoisie
question

Erik Wright revised Marx’s concept of social classes by regarding some people as simultaneously occupying more than one class. He termed their positions in the class structure ________.
answer

contradictory class locations

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