Sociology Final

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
important social influence
Race has no deterministic, biological basis but it still has:
changed over time
The concept of race has:
a person black
The “one drop” rule states that one drop of “black” blood makes:
Members of separate races possess different and unequal traits
Interracial marriage
Muslims(post 9/11) have undergone a new racial identity from being formally unnoticed as a group to being singled out for more discrimination
social construct
Race isn’t a fixed biological or natural reality, it’s a:
Legal or social practice of separating people on the basis of their race or ethnicity
a decrease in wealth for white Americans
Japanese internment camps resulted in:
Prejudice is to discrimination as thinking is to:
Term referring to mass killing of a particular population
passing, acceptance, and withdrawl
*prejudice is not a response
What are some responses to oppression?
economic circumstances
The text defines poverty as a condition of deprivation due to:
the United States
What country in ranked fourth concerning the highest poverty rates in the advanced world?
lopsided economic rewards
What drives American poverty rates?
culture of poverty
People are born into poverty and ultimately raise their children in poverty and learn “how” to live in poverty. They learn the norms and values associated with that way of life. This is known as Oscar Lewis’s:
Lyndon Johnson
United States President responsible for the “War on Poverty” and programs like Head Start and Job Corps
1. because of time spent following bureaucratic rules
2. because mothers have to take care of children and the home
3. because of trying to keep appointments to get food stamps
In what ways does welfare hinder work?
let states have more responsibility in running welfare programs, encourage 2 parent families, and discourage out-of-wedlock births
What did the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act do?
it didn’t set up children savings’ accounts that parents weren’t allowed to touch
What is one thing the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act not do?
lack of transportation to the Department of Social Services
Why don’t people who are eligible for food stamps apply for them?
deviant and dangerous to mainstream society
The Underclass thesis states that the poor are:
economic segregation
Gated communities are examples of what factor that is mixing with wealth inequality to increase the gap between the rich and poor
absolute poverty
A household’s income falls below the necessary level to purchase food and physically sustain member of the household
What important factor does the definition of relative poverty take into account when determining poverty based on a percentage of median income?
official poverty line
Mollie Orshanksy used the U.S. Department of Agriculture recommendations for the minimum amount of healthy food, estimated the cost for a variety of family types, and multiplied this factor of three to measure:
When the official poverty line was first set, food made up the largest percentage of household budgets. In today’s society, what now makes up the largest percentage?
their behavioral problems decreased
A study of Cherokee children whose income greatly increased due to the legalized gambling on reservations found that:
they don’t have pension or retirement savings plans
Why is it difficult for almost half of Americans to save for retirement?
a measure of economic inequality
What is the Gini coefficient?
It, along with media, gives us goals that are unreachable for must of us, thus plummeting us into debt
Status consumption has been discussed earlier in the text in the chapter on stratification. How does it affect poverty?
Mr., Miss, or Mrs.
Before 1964, courtesy titles were not typically used by whites to refer to blacks. What are courtesy titles?
Bob Moses
A Harvard student who was a member of the SNCC and was once described as “Martin Luther King’s brother”
eye rape
During segregation, black men had to be careful not to look a white women in the eyes. Violation of this norm was called:
segregation laws
What is a example of direct institutional discrimination?
Is it true that there is greater genetic variation within racial groups than there is between them?
a system of practices meant to maintain and purify the genetic composition of a group
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
What does SNCC stand for?
convincing white northern students from affluent families to risk their lives and go to Mississippi to help with voter registration and organizing in an attempt to garner national attention
What was a key piece in the SNCC strategy?
The cultural representation of an ideology
the holding of preconceived ideas about and individual or group that are resistant to change even in the face of new information
He didn’t want to alienate white southern voters who would determine the outcome of the presidential election.
Why did Lyndon Johnson refuse to seat the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party at the Democratic National Convention?
affirmative action
Positive efforts to recruit minority members for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities in known as:
Occurs when a majority group and a minority group combine to form a new group
contact hypothesis
States that interracial contact between people of equal status in communicative circumstances will cause them to become less prejudiced
1. receive unequal treatment
2. involuntary membership
3. distinguishing cultural characteristics
What are the properties of a minority group?
Overgeneralizations about a group and it’s members that go beyond existing evidence
-What prejudice rests on
conflict perspective
Native American casinos generate five percent of the nation’s overall gambling revenues. White corporate interests begin to pressure Congress to restrict the casino revenues of Native Americans. Which sociological perspective would most likely argue the restrictions are a result of discrimination?
one third
The official poverty line, as defined by the U.S. government, assumes a family will spend _____________ of its income on food.
What correlation coefficient is likely to result from the analysis of data in sociology?
Does correlation ever equal causation?
1. social life depends on consensus and cooperation
2. sudden change disrupts social life and sets things off balance
3. understanding of society as an integrated whole composed of specialized interdependent parts
What are some aspects of the functionalist sociological perspective?
a religious sect who handles snakes as a way to show their belief and God
What was the YouTube video on the Jolo community in West Virginia about?
The model of sociology that attempts to reveal the social facts that affect social life by developing and testing hypotheses based on theories about how the social world works
a system which is best understood by describing its various components and understanding the relationships among them
From a functionalist perspective, the plantations of the antebellum South represent:
structure and dynamics of the relationships among the director, the stars, the extras, and the crew
A sociologist is walking on a city street and notices a film crew shooting a scene for a motion picture. The sociologist is most likely to be interested in the:
If you were to use a measure of central tendency to describe a set of data that have a great deal of variation (such as income distribution for individuals who live in a particular community) which measure would be your best choice?
To Marx, conflict between a small number of capitalists and a large number of workers would divide society. He referred to this large number of workers as:
A perfect negative correlation is indicated by what value?
scientific method
The attempt to systematically understand a phenomenon through the collection of observable information is known as the:
functional integration
The pattern of social relationships, social positions, and numbers of people
“sociological imagination”
C. Wright Mills refers to the attempt to see our personal experiences in the context of larger social forces, beyond our control, as:
dependent variable
Gus Curtis wishes to conduct an experiment looking at the relationship between students who study in groups and their grades on examinations. He takes a group of eight students and has them study for a sociology mid-term together and compares their grades to eight students who studied alone. In the above experiment, the grades on the exam are the:
double consciousness
A white person goes into an upscale shop to look at clothes. He is excited to see that there is a sale and gathers a huge a pile of clothes to take into the dressing room. An African American goes into the store and is excited about the sale, but hesitates to take many clothes into the dressing room, afraid that staff will think he might shoplift. W.E.B. Du Bois would say that the African American has:
symbolic interactionism
The approach to society concerned with communication by such means as words, gestures, facial expressions, and sounds
quantitative and qualitative
What are the two basic types of research that sociology can be divided into?
People who attempt to explain events by uncovering recurring patterns in people’s attitudes and actions and how such patterns change over time and place
best defined as the study of how human life is socially organized
symbolic interactionist theory
“How does the situation appear to those individuals who are involved in it?” is a question most likely to be asked by a sociologist in which perspective?
Women have been repeatedly shown to be far less likely to commit suicide when compared to men. In analyzing this finding, it is clear that the independent variable is:
proves that there is a casual link between them
One of the most common research mistakes is to assume that a high correlation between two variable:
sociologists are constantly questioning things that most people take for granted
For what reason can sociology be a very disturbing discipline?
sociological imagination
As hard as he tries, James Patterson cannot find work although he is a skilled craftsperson with over twenty years experience in the construction trade. He understand that there are millions of people like him who are also out of work as a result of high interest rates and a government cutback in spending. According to C. Wright Mills, Mr. Patterson’s understanding of his situation demonstrates what?
documentary research
Historical studies conducted by sociologists often rely on the use of what?
Durkheim’s main hypothesis (functionalism)
Said that more integrated people are into a group, the less likely they are to commit suicide
The most common research method used to gather sociological data
Do surveys allow researchers to gain fuller, more detailed responses than interviews?
1. How do men and women differ in their parenting roles?
2. WHat is the relationship between social class and educational aspirations?
3. Why does race and ethnic intolerance increase during an economic recession?
What are some questions a sociologist would be interested in exploring?
inequality and battle over scarce resources
The Civil Rights movement of the 1960’s often involved violence. A conflict perspective explanation might say that this violence resulted from:
Older adults are more likely than younger adults to vote in a presidential election
What is a good example of an hypothesis?
You are doing research on the acquisition and retention of land by African Americans in the nineteenth century. You are using U.S. Census data and Georgia’s county Tax Digests. You have reason to believe that, as the local production of cotton within a local area increases, the opportunity for black farmers to acquire land decreases. What type of research methodology are you using?
Devised by adding all numbers in a set of data and dividing the sum by the number of items in the data set
1. reconsidering ones assumptions about society
2. questioning what one would normally take for granted about society
3. trying to understand unfamiliar social phenomena
What are some examples of “thinking like a sociologist”?
horses- both because they cost the most and permitted slave to travel further
Thinking back to the professor’s lecture about her research, what animal was the most valuable to a slave?
A feeling that one doesn’t “belong” in society
history, political science, biology and economics
Sociology overlaps with what fields of study?
1. local and interactional contexts
2. a focus on face to face encounters
3. the use of observations
What are some characteristics of microsociology?
The use of numerical data and statistics is typically associated with which type of sociological research?
the ability to sample a large number of people
What is an advantage to using surveys to conduct sociological research?
1. ability to gain rich information
2. flexibility
3. gives a perspective from the “inside”
What are some advantages of field research?
When Dr. Hargis spoke about research she’s performed, did she use qualitative or quantitative data?
The President of a college wishes to learn how the student body feels about a change in the school calendar. Since the school has over 25,000 students, the President decides to survey only 250 students to determine their attitude. The 250 students being surveyed constitutes a:
an open- ended question
A question on a survey that allows the respondent to give a more detailed, subjective response to the question he/she is presented
advanced statistical methods
When undertaking a quantitive study, a researcher is likely to use what?
limited the amount of time one could receive benefits
What was a major outcome with Clinton’s 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act?
Two variables are said to be inversely related to one another if, as one variable increases, the other:
the kinds of relationships that exist within them
What is an important difference between primary and secondary groups?
small groups, large groups, parties
George Simmel says there are three types of groups larger than a triad. What are they?
when there are more than two topics being discussed
When does is a party considered a party?
a large group
Our sociology class is considered what?
how powerful the influence of a group can be on an individual
What did Solomon Asch’s group conformity experiment demonstrate?
Stigmatized groups, such as gays and lesbians, are known as:
an in-group
Which is more powerful: an in-group or an out-group?
reference group
Maria idolized Taylor Swift. She imitates her while singing in front of her mirror. To Maria, Taylor Swift is her:
a tie
Janet met Sally in graduate school. Dr. Hering, Janet’s gynecologist, knows Sally from Church. The nature of their relationship to Sally is known as:
A sum of stories about a set of ties that exist between people
the strength of weak ties
The fact that relatively weak ties that aren’t reinforced through direct paths often turn out to be the most valuable, especially in job searches, is known as:
selling through a consignment shop because buyers are prevented from negotiating with sellers
What method of selling (eBay or consignment shop) could be argued to have more structural holes?
Amish live by prioritizing the community and it’s social capital rather than rugged individualism
What is the main reason for Amish business success when compared to the success of other U.S. businesses?
the fact that boys tend to exaggerate sexual experience
What wouldn’t put American teens at risk for an STI?
Can the applicability of network analysis within sociological research be used on a microlevel or macrolevel study?
organizational culture
Shared beliefs and behaviors within a social group that is also known as “corporate culture”
geometrically; arithmetically
Thomas Malthus said that human population grows ___________ while the ability to produce food increases ____________
meritocratic system
System in which advancement is based on individual achievement or ability
affirmative action
What is an example of the ideology of equality put into practice?
class system, estate system, and hierarchy system
What are some types of social stratification?
Is a bourgeois system a type of social stratification?
caste system
Type of stratification based on hereditary notions of religious and theological purity and in which there is little to no individual mobility
class system
System in which your societal position is related to your position in the economic market
contradictory class location
Business managers are an example of what concept?
socioeconomic status
An individual’s position in a stratified social order that attempts to classify groups, individuals, families, or household in terms of indicators such as occupation, income, wealth and education
Everything you own minus debts such as mortgage on home and credit card debt
returns on investments
What is the primary source of income for the upper class?
What percent of the population is the upperclass which includes CEOs, government officials, celebrities, and professionals?
low wage service work
What American job sector has increased since the oil crisis of 1973?
high-skilled and low-skilled
The effect of globalization has begun to split labor into:
social mobility
Movement between different positions within a system of social stratification in any given society
horizontal social mobility
Individual transitioning from one social status to another situated more or less on the same run of the social ladder
structural mobility
If factories are moving from U.S. to Mexico and jobs are drying up in the U.S., this downward mobility is due to:
social characteristics
Sex refers to biological characteristics while gender refers to what?
reassign an ambiguous male anatomy to a female one
90% of surgeries to make intersex children conform to the ideal of norm genitalia:
inborn differences
John Gray argues that temperaments, emotions, and languages of males and females are rooted in:
distract from an analysis of how Western women are also subordinated
Extreme female subordination in the Arab world such as female circumcision can:
Says that men and women should be given equal opportunity and respect
Desire, sexual preference, sexual identity, and behavior
men becoming victims of sexual assault after entering a female dominated occupation
Gender structures social relationships by giving men the advantage in society. What is lease likely to happen to men?
sexual harassment
Inappropriate jokes and sexual bartering are example of what?
A CEO makes ______ more than the typical worker
The middle class is _____ off than it used to be
The American dream of social mobility is ____________
it is apparent one year out of college
When does pay inequality between men and women begin?
norms, symbols, values, and beliefs
What are some examples of nonmaterial culture?
What is an example of material culture?
good luck
According to the lecture on symbols, the swastika represent what in ancient India and classical antiquity?
Mores and folkways are types of what?
Blue jeans gained popularity when they became a symbol of white activists’ solidarity with the African American working class during the civil rights era
According to the lecture, which of the following was a step in the development of blue jeans as a part of popular material culture in America?
The belief that one group or culture is superior to others, as well as the tendency to view all other cultures from the perspective of one’s own
According to the lecture, Steampunk can be described as a:
their appearance, sexuality, and their supposed propensity for trickery and seduction
According to the Generation M video, the source of women’s empowerment is depicted by popular media as:
we are both creators and creations of culture
The Kheinz wedding video, as shown in class, was used to demonstrate that:
Breaking ______ would cause one to receive the harshest social sanctions
interning at a hospital to prepare for becoming a nurse
What is an example of anticipatory socialization?
The type of socialization experienced when one discards former behavior patterns and accepts new ones as part of a transition in life is known as:
This popular child toy was based on a European doll representing a gold digger, exhibitionist, and floozy named Lilli
conformity to external authority
According to the study presented during the lecture, working-class parents are more likely to emphasize what?
actors learn scripts, actors struggle to make a good impression, and actors perform roles
In a dramaturgical perspective, as developed by Goffman, life is depicted as a play whereby:
formal sanction
A worker is frequently late, takes extended “coffee breaks,” and makes numerous mistakes while working on important tasks. As a result of poor performance, the worker is fired. This is an example of:
Those collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable, and proper (or bad, undesirable, and improper) are known as:
material culture
A basketball arena, an airliner, a slice of pizza, and a television set would all be examples of what?
a newly ordained minister in a Lutheran church
What is an example of an achieved status?
where we are our “private selves” and where the real story takes place
According to impression management, the backstage arena would include:
popular culture
Low culture such as hip-hop music is also known as:
reflect cultural trends of specific times
Stanley Lieberson, a sociology professor at Harvard, studied culture using first names. He found that names:
behavior; attitudes
Norms are to ___________ as values are to ____________
the experience of learning a culture’s norms, values, and so on
having to pay a parking ticket
What is a common example of a formal sanction?
Sally discovers her mother-in-law is dropping by shortly, so Sally rushes to tidy up the house a little bit
What is a scenario that would provide an example of front-stage behavior?
You take at trip to Alaska and find that Eskimo families sleep together naked to stay warm. You find this practice disgusting and can’t understand why they don’t consider this incestuous. What are you being?
American of Japanese decent
What is an example of an ascribed status?
What was the first form of mass media?
public service announcements
Deliberate, long term media campaigns such as Smokey the Bear, which began in 1944 and is still was us today, are examples of ads used by nonprofit organizations to educate the public. They are commonly known as:
the exaggerated frequency of the reports of these rarely occurring events
We all fear school shootings and terrorist acts. Why is this?
violence against women, the high instance of eating disorders in our female population, and negative attitudes towards women
Jean Kilborn has produced documentaries that examine the ways in which women are presented in advertisements. She suggests that there is a link between these images and what?
In the United States, six major companies including Disney and Time Warner, own what percentage of the media?
Bill Gates and Oprah Winfrey have a lot of “things.” Because of this, the rest of us look at them with envy and wish we could have the happiness we assume them to have. What is this an example of?
The process by which people internalize the values, beliefs and norms required to become functioning members of a given society
when a child is born
When does socialization begin?
“human nature” is the result of a complex relationship between nature (biology) and nurture (the social environment)
The case of Anna, who had been horribly neglected and had virtually no human contact, illustrates the fact that:
sociologist focus on, and as a result give primary weight to, the social environment in explaining how people think, feel, and behave
If we place nature and nurture at opposite ends on a continuum, most sociologist would fall toward the nurture end of the continuum. Why is this?
interpreting how others think about us
According to Charles Horton Cooley’s theory, the looking glass self, we develop self concept by:
the “I” is selfish and impulsive; the “me” is how believe others see us
What best describes the difference between the “I” and “me” in George Herbert Mead’s theory?
A child taught to say “bless you” every time someone sneezes in her home. When she is at the grocery store one day, the child says “bless you” to a complete stranger when she sneezes in the check-out line
What is a good example of the “generalized other?”
family, schools, peers, and media
What are four main primary agents of socialization?
middle class parents stress independence and self-direction while working class parents instill respect for authority in their children
What is the main difference of how parents of different social classes socialize their children?
peer pressure
What is this an example of: A student decides to go out for drinks after her friends make her feel guilty for “studying too much”
the media serves as a powerful socializing agent
The popular tv show, Sesame Street, was created with the explicit purpose of providing educational opportunities for low-income children. Being that this tv show was successful, we can argue that:
What is the best example of a total institution?
a marketing director of a large firm is sent to prison for embezzlement
What is an example of a situation where the process of resocialization would occur?
master status
Venus Williams is one of the top women’s tennis players in the world. This status overrides all of her other statuses and is known as her what?
status; role
_______ refer to a social position while ______ designates socially expected behavior
they lay out what is expected of people
What is the sociological significance of roles?
Expectations that define appropriate or inappropriate behavior for the occupants of a particular status
may not be stable
By looking at anthropological findings in tribal societies, sociologists can see fluidity in gender, which helps us see that the boundaries within our own system of gender:
In the seventeenth century, Rubensque women were considered beauties because when food was scarce, a plump woman was a sign of good health, wealth, and attractiveness. What was the catalyst that made food plentiful and changed the standard of beauty for women?
her gender identity
Bob and Sue painted their baby’s room pink as soon as they found out they were having a girl. They are beginning to provide the baby with what?
Harvard president Larry Summers stated that at the highest levels of performance, men might have innate advantage over women in scientific aptitude and the genetic differences could explain the security of female “hard” scientists at elite universities. Journalists termed this:
more likely to interrupt (and get away with it)
In the classroom, compared to girls, boys are:

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member