Sociology exams 5, and 6

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Walter Reckless and Simond Dintz claimed that \”good boys\” have the ability to rein in deviant impulses. They called their approach
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Differential association theory
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Alexander liazos speaks for the social conflict approach when he states that
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Powerless people are at the highest risk of being defined as deviant
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Men who represent about half the population accounts about_______ of all arrest for property crime in the United States
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70%
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It is true that prisons
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Do provide some protection for criminals for society. Do little to rehabilitate most inmates. Me create a stigma that hurts a convicts chance for later acceptance including finding a job
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The recognized violation of cultural norms refers to what sociological term
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Deviance
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Using Robert Merton’s strain theory paradigm which term best classifies the behavior of a low-paid your compulsively conformig bank teller
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Ritualism
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Weather people respond to the deviance as a moral or medical matter issue affects which of the following
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Cool response police or medical personnel. Whether the person is subject to punishment or treatment. How personally competent the person is assumed to be
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Edwin Sutherland stated that the white collar crime
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Is usually resolved in a civil rather than a criminal court
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Victimization surveys show that the actual amount of crime in the United States is about______ What official report indicates
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3x greater than
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Because there are several hundred people in the United States for every police officer police
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Use discretion in deciding which situations warrant their attention
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Crime differs from deviance in the sense that crime
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Is a violation of norms enacted into law
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In his strain theory Robert and Martin would use which of the following terms to describe a notorious like Al Capone
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Innovator
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What is Erving goffman’s term for a powerful and negative label that greatly changes a person’s self-concept and social identity
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Stigma
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________ refers to the illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf
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Corporate crime
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Research suggests that with regard to social class arrest for serious crime is
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Higher for people in Lower Class levels
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Which term refers to efforts to reform an offender in order to preclude further offenses
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Rehabilitation
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What is the term for the formal system that responds to alleged violations of the law using police courts and prison officials
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The criminal justice system
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Both Albert Cohen and Walter Miller argue that criminality is most likely to arise among
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Low income youth
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The value of psychological theories of deviance is limited because
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Most people who commit crimes have normal personalities
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Organized crime refers to
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Any business that supplies illegal goods or services
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Most criminal cases that reach the courts in the United States are resolved how
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Through a plea bargain
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Edwin Sutherlands differential association theory links deviance to
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The amount of contact a person has with others who encourage or discourage the behavior in question
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Every society tries to regulate the behavior of individuals with the goal of preventing deviance this process is called
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Social control
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Robert Merton’s strain theory of deviance uses the term_______ to refer to the process of seeking conventional goals but rejecting conventional means to get there
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Innovation
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According to the social conflict paradigm what Society labels as deviant is based primarily upon
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Patterns of inequality in terms of power
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Biological approaches offer
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A very limited understanding of crime
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Emile durkheim’s basic inside is that deviance is
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A normal element of social organization
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The basic idea behind labeling theory is that
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Deviance arises not so much from what people do as how others respond to what they do
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Which is the term for Crime committed by persons of high social position in the course of their occupations
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White collar crime
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Prostitution is widely regarded as what kind of crime
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Victimless crime
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The country with the highest number of killings involving handguns is
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The United States
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His friends begin to criticize this individual as a boozer pushing him out of their Circle. The individual begins to drink even more becomes better and joins a new group of friends who are also heavy drinkers. According to Edwin limerick this situation illustrates
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The onset of secondary deviance
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In his strain theory Robert Merton uses the term _______to describe the behavior of a radical who protects cultural goals and means in favor of some alternative system
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Rebellion
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What illustrates the medicalization of deviance
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Theft being redefined as a compulsive disorder drinking too much being redefined as alcoholism promiscuity being redefined as a sexual addiction
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A hate crime is defined as
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A criminal act motivated by racial or other bias
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According to Elliot Curie factors that explain the high crime rate in the United States by World standards include
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Our emphasis on individual economic success which often weakens families and neighborhoods
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What is not true about the social Foundation of deviance
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Most packs that are deviant in one place or deviant everywhere
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Travis Hershey’s control theory suggests which of the following categories of people would be most likely to engage in deviance
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Youngsters who hang out waiting for something to happen
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The likelihood a person will be arrested for a street crime Rises sharply
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During the late teenage years
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Elijah Anderson describes the subculture of poor neighborhoods that encourages violence in trouble with the law as
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The code of the streets
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Which justification uses the threat of punishment to discourage criminality
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Deterrence
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The recent scandals involving Enron and other corporations are examples of which of the following
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A corporate crime
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In his String Theory Robert Merton uses the term_____ to describe behavior of a Dropout who rejects both cultural goals and the conventional means to reach them
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Retreatism
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Most people arrested for a violent crime are
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White
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Gender figures out the study of deviance because
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Every society in the world applies more stringent normative controls to females than to males
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Richard cloward and Lloyd Olin extended Merton’s theory of deviance stating that a crime
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Reflects both limited legitimate opportunity as well as accessible illegitimate opportunity
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The oldest justification for punishing an offender is
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Retribution
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Edwin lemert describe primary deviance as
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A passing episode of deviance that has little on the person’s self concept
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Which of the following are functions of deviance noted by Emile durkheim
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Deviance of firms cultural values and norms responding to deviance promotes moral unity responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries
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Which of the following comes closest to the correct view of the role of biology in causing to commit crimes
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Biological factors may have a real but small effect in causing some people to commit crimes
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What is the term for social group toward which we feel competition or opposition
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Out-group
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Which of the following is not evidence of the mcdonaldization of society
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Replacing bank tellers with automatic teller machines shopping in carefully designed climate-controlled malls the spread of worldwide chain stores and restaurants
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Why did Cooley refer to some groups as primary groups
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They are among the first groups we experience in life they have primary importance in the socialization process they are people we think of as having primary importance in our lives
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What is the term for group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks
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Instrumental leadership
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Max Weber argued that formal organizations while efficient have the ability to______ people within them
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Alienate
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What is the sociological term coined by Irving Janis for a limited understanding of some issues caused by group conformity
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Groupthink
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The chapter opening story of the McDonald’s organization explains
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That the guiding principles of McDonald’s have come to dominate our social life
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What is the term for group leadership that emphasizes Collective well-being
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Expressive leadership
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Formal organizations are
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Large secondary groups with a goal orientation
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What do sociologists call two or more people who identify and interact with one another
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A social group
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Which type of leaders are likely to use humor to lighten a serious moment
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Expressive leaders
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Which of the following terms refers to a social group that people use as a point of reference in making evaluations or decisions
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Reference group
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Which type of formal organization is sometimes called a voluntary Association
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Normative organization
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Which of the following terms refers to the rule of many by the few
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Oligarchy
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The term mcdonaldization of society refers to
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McDonald’s organizational principles come to dominate much of society
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In principle bureaucratic organizations pay little attention to
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Tradition
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Which of the following is the best example of a secondary group
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A Microsoft Corporation awards banquet
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Charles Cooley referred to a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships using the term
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Primary group
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Which type of leadership style focuses on instrumental concerns making decisions and obtaining strict compliance for subordinates
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Authoritarian leadership
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What is the term for a social group that commands a members esteem and loyalty
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In-group
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A maximum-security prison is one example of a
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Coercive organization
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What trades have been described as a female advantage
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A greater information Focus placing greater emphasis on communication more flexible leadership
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Which of the following is the best example of a primary group
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A family gathering for a religious holiday
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Stanley milgram’s research in which subjects to use a Shot Generator showed
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People are surprisingly likely to follow the orders of not only legitimate authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals
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What sociological terms refers to a number of weak social ties among persons who have little common identity and little interaction
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Network
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What is the term used to describe factors outside organization that affect its operation
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Organizational environment
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Which of the following is every society’s most important primary group
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The family
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Which type of group leader supports collective decision making on an egalitarian basis
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Democratic
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What does not describe formal organizations in Japan
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Expected leaders to make decisions quickly on their own and others to follow orders
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The assembled students at a University graduation ceremony would correctly be termed a
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Secondary group
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Which type of leaders tend to downplay their position and power allowing the group to function more or less on its own
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Laissez-faire leaders
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Which statement reflects simmels understanding of the dyad
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Dyads are less stable than groups with many members
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From the point of view of parents what type of formal organization is a school’s parent-teacher Association
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In normative organization
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Which is the following is not one of the principles of mcdonaldization
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Creativity
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A secondary group is a social group that
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Is impersonal and engages in some specific activity
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Which of the following statements is consistent with the findings of Solomon asch
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Many people are willing to compromise their own judgement to avoid being seen as different
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The term bureaucracy refers to
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An organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently
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Solomon asch research in which subjects were asked to match lines showed
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The power of group membership to generate conformity
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Which of the following attributes is not a characteristic of secondary groups
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