Sociology Exam 1. Ch 1-3

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Auguste Comte
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(1789-1859) first to change society religious metaphysical positive must use scientific methods to study sociology. coined the term \”sociology\”, believed field would synthesize other knowledge and allow sociologists to help improve society by focusing on moral progess.
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Karl Marx
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(1818-1883) German Middle Class Educated Editor of newspaper Rheinische Zeitung shut down gov’t 2 classes- Bourgeoise(cap) & Proletariat(exploited workers) exploitation=revolution better society-class conflict-inequality between capitol and labor.
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Durkheim
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(1858-1917) suicide (personal or not) religion age marital status gender employment how social forces viewed society as an entity larger than sum of its parts. integration regulation social pattern external to individuals development of Functionalsm and conflict theory.
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Weber
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(1864-1920) class = most significant factor among people \”status\”(social ranking) and \”party\”(affiliation) voluntary organization.
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W.E.B DuBois
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(1868-1963) Racial
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Jane Addams
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NWACP
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Harriet Martineau
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first female sociologist slavery pottery prisons
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C Wright Mills
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outlines relationship between structure and agency through what he termed the sociological imagination.
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Sociological Imagination
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C. Wright Mills helps us to ask hard questions and get answers about social worlds we inhabit. challenges inevitable or natural stereotypes that lead to discrimination.
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order of sociology
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Comte–>Veblen–>Marx–>Durkheim–>1st U.S. Sociology School Weber University of Chicago
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conspicuous consumption
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plastic spoons–>silver spoons Honda–>bugadi middle class leisure
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Thorstein Veblen
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\”productive\” workers \”pecuniary\” owners major position- not matter of technology but of its ownership, control, and uses of it. technology- not social uplift or social decay
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Sociology
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formally the study of society involves study of diverse contexts within which society influences individuals distinguishes between social interactions and social structure(external forces)(way people act together) study of human behavior examining certain questions about our lives -nature of identity relationship between individuals and larger groups -work -home -education -public
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stereotypes
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beliefs about members of a group that are usually false, or at least exaggerated, but are the basis of assumptions made about individual members of the group.
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discrimination
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any behavior, practice, or policy that harms, excludes, or disadvantages individuals on the basis of their group membership.
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social theories
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overarching frameworks that suggest certain assumptions and assertions about the way the world works, for posing such questions and evaluating evidence related to those questions.
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research methods
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ways of systematically studying questions in order to develop new evidence that allows new answers to be generated.
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natural science vs. social science
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same – research application differ- subject of study
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social structure
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values, beliefs, and cultural patterns
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fundamental elements that constitute
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what is it that makes you – YOU!? How is it that you know how to act or interact with others.
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examples of research of discipline
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Wallerstein: First to map world Economy Duster: Politicla and economic ramifications of DNA Molotch: toilets and the use there of. Jerlmak: human animal relations Sharkey: crime exposure
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example questions
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The basic units or human life- or individuals’ relationships with others-to the groups and organization we a part of, all the way up to a now rapidly changing global economy that is impacting all of our social relationships.
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Scientific method
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step-by-step process of conduction research that begins with formulation a research hypothesis, then operationalizing variables, then collecting data, and finally drawing empirical and conceptual generalizations from the data.
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Pat Sharkey
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study on neighborhood violence and children’s school performance. examined violence in communities and how it effects children highlights children who are most vulnerable and effected at home. violence can be absorbed be and transmitted through neighborhood context
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social forces in society that shape and influence people’s attitudes, beliefs, and decision making processes.
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BABY–family, income, neighborhood and community, education, types of organizations, employment, country of birth, historical period at birth. FAMILY–give racial, ethnic and religious identities, teach basic rules of society, provide first social networks, influence education and cognitive capacities through life-long interactions, help in later life.
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collective and cultural identities
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we learn our identities but also a cultural identity
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social interaction
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the way people act together including how they modify and alter their behavior in response to presence of others
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social structure
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flip side of social interactions, refers to external forces, most notably in the social hierarchies and institutions of society
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norms
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basic rules of society that help define what is and isn’t appropriate in any situation. vary between cultures and across time sanctions of norm violations depends on importance of norm -lesser norms dressing nice for job interview -stricter norm law
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social hierarchy
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set of important social relationships
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institutions of society
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organizations that regulate longstanding and importance practices
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our roles in life or specific rules or expectations
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urbanizations-growth of cities in U.S., Europe, and elsewhere industrialization-growth of factories and large scale goods produced new technology and innovations immense social change
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society
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the aggregate of people living together in a more or less ordered community
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social network
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a network of social interactions and personal relationships
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globalization
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growth to a global or worldwide scale; \”the globalization of the communication industry
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social context
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The social environment of an individual, also called social context or milieu, is the culture that he or she was educated and/or lives in, and the people and institutions with whom the person interacts.
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urban area
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a geographical area constituting a city or town
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social movement
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movement: a group of people with a common ideology who try together to achieve certain general goals; \”he was a charter member of the movement\”; \”politicians have to respect a mass movement\”; \”he led the national liberation front
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unit of analysis
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the major entity that is being in the study. It is the ‘what’ or ‘whom’ that is being studied. In social science research, typical units of analysis include individuals (most common), groups, social organizations and social artifacts
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interdisciplinary research
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is a field of study that crosses traditional boundaries between academic disciplines or schools of thought, as new needs and professions have emerged.
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structural functionalism
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argue that we must look at both structure, or how the parts od society fit together to make a while, and function, or what each part of society does. when parts fail to function = abnormality 1. structure, how parts of society fit to make a whole 2. function, what society does
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conflict theory
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basis of conflict in capitalist societies is class differences between the owners of the means of production, or bourgeoisie capitalists, and the workers, or proletariat. conflict theory today: class, gender, race, age, ethnicity, and sexuality. all linked to inequality
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Marx
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through observation. as society advanced technologically, the rewards were not distributed equally
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weber
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social analysis from point of individuals. symbolic interactionism: explains how meaning is produced everyday interactions between people. reality is constructed through interactions with others.
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Sadir Venkatesh
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underground gand economy (participant observation)
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Bernadette Barton
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exotic dancers (interviews) how they felt about being in this position
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quantitative research
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research that uses statistical analysis of data
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qualitative analysis
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research that uses words, observations, or images as data
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hypothesis
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independent and dependent variables: an increase or decrease in economic well being (IV) in society…=…an increase in instances of domestic terrorism (DV)
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good literature review
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essential before formulation a research question or hypothesis helps move interests from research topics to research questions
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6 questions that sociologists use to gauge a research questions feasibility and relevance or discussed in this section.
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1. Do I already know answer? 2. Is question researchable? 3. Is question clear? 4. Does question have connection to social scientific scholarship? 5. Does question balance general and specific? 6. Do I care about answer?
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epistemology
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first factor that shapes the answer to \”how do we know what to study?\” thoughts that we can know about the world
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positivism approach
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draws from logic of natural sciences touch, pin-point
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interpretivism
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world id too complex to study, survey methods
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theoretical traditions
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2nd factor that influences sociologists decisions about their research. conceptual frameworks sued to imagine and make sense of world
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values
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3rd factor in scientists research decisions belief system that shape views of and perspectives on world studies.
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code of ethics
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4th factor in scientists research decisions set of guidelines that outline what is considered moral and acceptable behavior
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Tearoom Trade Study
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(1965-1968) Laud Humphreys, researched men who have impersonal sex with men.(Humphreys 1970) \”watch queen\”, license plates, public surveys violates informed consent
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operationalize
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put into operation or use.
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dependent variable
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aspects of research we predict will fluctuate on relation to other variables
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independent variable
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aspects of research we predict will exist separate from other variables
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independent(level of quality) and dependent(crime rate)
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increase in level of inequality —–> increase crime rate Causal Claim
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surveys
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standard questions- large number patterns of behavior among large groups of people
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interviews
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small number- in depth thought processes that lead to certain opinions or behaviors
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ethnographic research
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observe or participate how people interact rather than how they say they interact
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historical research
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records/documents
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how data is collected
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sampling-reliability and validity, access, time commitment probability sampling-mirrors populations random sampling-equal chance representative sampling-population characteristic
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Gallup Poll
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most utilized tool for measuring U.S. public’s attitudes concerning virtually every political, social, and economic issue. track significant changes and trends in U.S. public opinion over time. Americans were asked \”approved or disapproved of black and white marriage\” over last 50 years.
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correlation
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occurs when 2 social phenomenon appear together
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causal inference
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addresses how variables are linked and what motivates changes
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coleman report
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James Colemam 1964 CRA perform survey between equal educational opportunities how to fix relationship between school resource and test scores. equalization of funding vs integration- used cross-sectional data to support bussing.
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interview methods
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strengths-deriving how people make sense of worlds. giving voice to groups often silenced by others allowing methods to understand nuances and follow up on unexpected findings challenges-drawing research samples, turning research question into focused interview, analyzing copious amounts of that data
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ethnographic methods
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strengths- using ethnographic continuum to determine context, producing some of the richest, most nuanced accounts of life in sociology, providing thick descriptions challenges-making sense of data and determining how to generalize from them.
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how Gertz and Buroway contribute to ethnologic research
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Geertz- thick description viewed as way to render understand of understanding Buroway-extend case method, emphasized contributions to social theory
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ethnographer
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an anthropologist who does ethnography
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institutional review board
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is a committee that has been formally designated to approve, monitor, and review biomedical and behavioral research involving humans.
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respondent
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a person who replies to something, esp. one supplying information for a survey or questionnaire or responding to an advertisement.
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causal inference
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judgments about causation of one thing by another.
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spurious relationship
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is a mathematical relationship in which two occurrences have no causal connection, yet it may be inferred that they do, due to a certain third, unseen factor (referred to as a \”confounding factor\”
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George Herbert Mead
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symbolic interaction or internationalism social self is the only kind of self there can be self is not a thing but a process of interaction
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Spitz Orphanage Study
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lack of social contact affected emotional health, physical health, and sometimes mortality of babies.
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Haney Prison Study
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without contact with others, prisoners I solitary conferment experienced wide range of negative psychological and physical symptoms
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looking-glass self
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we know ourselves from the \”looking glass\” of others, mirrors back to us the impressions we create. looking for approval is a motivational, fundamental human instinct positive approval contributes to our sense of self and social belonging
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Christena
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contents of wallets and purses
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Nippert -Eng
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publiclt shared and privately kept items
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Garfinkel
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invented ethnomethodology concluded humans have specific
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master method
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people persistently and intensively take context into account meaning is constructed by drawing on social context
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other method
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not demanding complete responses to asked questions and sometimes used
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constructing out social reality
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we are constructing our identities based on non-verbal cues or non-verbal language and verbal meanings.

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