Sociology-Education & Deviance

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hidden curriculum
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the often unstated standards of behavior that teachers and administrators expect from children within the education system; may reflect the middle-class biases and norms of school professionals
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credentialism
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a requirement that one must obtain certain degrees or certificates before he/she can be considered for a specific job
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socialization theory
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a theory regarding the impact of education that focuses on how education transmits knowledge, skills, and values that persist in adulthood and that employers believe increase productivity
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allocation theory
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a theory regarding the impacts of education that focuses on how education channels people into positions or institutions that offer different opportunities for continuing to think, learn, and earn
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social closure
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the idea that education serves a credentialing function that limits entry into some professions and thus raises the rewards of people in them
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educational homogamy
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the practice of people marrying individuals with educational levels similar to their own
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socioeconomic status (SES)
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a broad definition of a person’s social class based on components such as education, income, and occupation
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tracking
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a term used to describe how schools assign students to distinct groups based on ability or curriculum
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institutional differences
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differences in students’ learning experiences based on the schools they attend or the educational track they are assigned to
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digital divide
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the social, economic, and cultural gap between those with effective access to information technology and those without such access
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compulsory education
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education required by law for all students under a specific age
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cultural capital
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non-financial social assets that promote social mobility beyond economic means
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producing good citizens in society and teaching intellectual skills
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According to the book, there is a debate that focuses on what the purposes of education are. What are the two main topics debated as a primary purpose of education?
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could include gender-specific standards of behavior
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How could the \”hidden curriculum\” influence gender roles?
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middle class; most teachers are part of the middle class
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The hidden curriculum is often based on the views of which social class? Why?
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yes
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According to the book, does evidence suggests that educating citizens benefit the economy?
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more; critical thinking; socialize
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According to the book, research studies suggest that students in past studied…than current students, and were more likely to have…skills, current students…more.
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more
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Higher education costs…in the US than in other developed countries.
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workers are leaving labor unions, outsourcing labor, and financial assets are concentrated in global corporations where managers reap the benefits
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According to the book, why has the pay gap between high school and college graduates been expanding since the late 1970s?
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socialization and allocation
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Name the 2 theories that attempt to explain why educated individuals tend to have a high socioeconomic status.
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they’re more likely to participate in extracurricular activities
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Why do educated people tend to have bigger social networks?
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they feel more social support, and it increases their chance of referrals
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What are the benefits of having a big social network that more educated people tend to have?
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difference in working conditions, ability to afford insurance, and access to health information
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Why are educated people more likely to watch their health and live longer than less educated people?
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yes
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Are educated people more likely to get married and have a happy marriage?
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they tend to marry later in life and have fewer children
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What changes have occurred among educated women regarding family life?
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social background
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According to the book, children don’t get the same quality of education because of the opportunities/limitations related to their…?
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local
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…government controls and finances schools.
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testing
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Compared to other developed countries, US puts more pressure and emphasis on what organized practice?
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Education wasn’t always available to them before
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Why is education a relatively new concept for certain groups?
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Education should determine socioeconomic status despite social background
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How does meritocracy apply to education?
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it inspires ambition and competition which produces social inequality
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What is the problem with applying meritocratic ideas to education?
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it determines who’s most likely to succeed and who isn’t
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How does the institution of education act as a gatekeeper?
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to help students succeed by adjusting a shared curriculum based on their abilities
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What was the original intent of tracking?
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It ranks students based on the difficulty of their classes (AP, honors, regular)
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How does tracking function today?
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teaching intellectual skills
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What are the manifest functions of education?
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socializing students
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What are the latent functions of education?
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They all determine level of education which correlates with socioeconomic status
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Based on the conflict theory of education, what’s the connection between race, class, and gender in education?
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certain resources are needed for educational achievement (i.e. $ for college)
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How does having access to resources impact student achievement?
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social background affects educational achievement which decreases social mobility
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How is education an issue of inequality?
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a student’s label affects the teacher’s behavior toward the student which causes the student to behave as expected
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According to symbolic interactionism, how does self-fulfilling prophecy operate in education?
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teenage mothers are less likely to attain higher education than teenage fathers
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How does teenage pregnancy affect the young woman vs. the young man’s educational outcomes?
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school-to-prison pipeline
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refers to the policies and practices that push our nation’s schoolchildren, especially our most at-risk children, out of classrooms and into the juvenile and criminal justice systems
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lack of quality in education and overly strict behavioral policies
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How does the school-to-prison pipeline impact student achievement in education?
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deviance
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behavior that is recognized as violating expected rules and norms

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