Basic “facial features” that all humans can recognize: sadness, happiness, anger, surprise, contempt, disgust, fear. Certain emotional responses carry different meanings depending on culture. Observed blind people and athletes in competition in order to support his theories.
Hormonal/visceral/physical changes. Examples: increased heart rate, sweating, blushing, etc.
Attaching meaning to emotional experience by drawing on memory, etc. Examples: Blaming someone, perceiving a threat.
Expressing oneself through gestures/verbally, etc. Examples: Crying, screaming, jumping, etc.
Physical responses underlie emotions. “We feel sorry because we cry, afraid because we tremble, etc.” Physical reactions create emotions, not the other way around. Partially correct: physical state can alter emotions (for example, drinking too much caffeine –> jumpiness, irritability). Also partially correct because the brain does maintain memories of physical states associated with events (supports James-Lange, counters Canon-Bard).
Emotional feeling and internal physical response occur simultaneously. Reasoning: physical behavioral changes occur too slowly to account for split-second emotional states and that physical responses are not varied enough to account for all possible emotional states.
Two-Factor Theory (Schachter-Singer Theory)
Emotions we feel depend on 1) internal physical state,and 2) current external situation. Only theory to factor in cognition as a role in emotions. Example: Female assistant working on shaky bridge vs. sturdy bridge experiment.
Cognitive Appraisal Theory
After an event has occurred, we make a conscious decision on how to feel.
James-Lange: Stimulus (snake) –>physiological arousal (sweating, heart rate) –> emotion (fear).
Canon-Bard: Stimulus (snake) –>Physiological Arousal
Two-Factor: Stimulus (snake) –> Physiological Arousal
–> Cognitive Interpretation
BOTH LEAD TO: Appraisal of arousal/interpretation –> Emotion (fear)
set of rules & understanding that control behavior of people/groups in ANY culture/setting
-Folkways –> unwritten rules of how to behave. Ex: bathroom etiquette. Receive weaker Sanctions (dirty looks)
-Mores –> Rules. Laws. Stronger Sanctions. Ex: Don’t Drink and Drive.
Complex system f meaning/behavior that defines a way of life for a certain society; patterns of behavior.
Rewards/Punishments when norms are followed/broken (respectively). Mechanisms of social control to enforce norms.
Purposefully breaking norms in order to study them
group of people that maintain certain rituals/norms/values that make them separate from dominant culture. Ex: Trekkies, Irish Immigrants, Freegans, etc. Will most likely Assimilate, but will still be considered a subculture.
Cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted by society. Actively resist assimilation and reject dominant culture norms. Ex: anti-government survivalist groups, such as E.L.F. Assimilation is not likely, they are not integrated into common society.
culturally distinct groups with larger civilization. Adopting language/values/norms of host civilization.
Tendency to judge another’s culture as inferior in terms of one’s own norms/values.
Evaluating a culture by its own standards, not putting it into comparison to you own culture
Feelings of disorientation when one encounters new/rapidly changing cultural situations. Ex: Lost Boys of Sudan upon coming to America.
Kinship/descent; belief system/religion; communication/language; recreation; arts; laws/politics; technology; stratification/social structure; marriage; gender roles; economics; covering genitals; food sharing; healthcare systems.
Language determines other aspects of culture because language provides the categories through which social reality is understood. Ex: Yanomano counting system (1, 2, more than 2), and the word “awkward” doesn’t exist in Spanish.
Ability to identify, assess, and control emotions. Ability to handle emotions and recognize right from wrong. 5 Components:
Emotional part of the memory is stored when everything is settled, we realize what happened –> referred to as the emotional hijack.
Identity a person adopts and about which he/she attempts to gain agreement from others in a situation.
-Erving Goffman: Life is a series of cons.
Presentation of Self-you purposefully portray yourself a certain way by adopting an identity/providing identities for others, thereby influencing the outcome of a situation.
Explains how an individuals’ work is affected by knowing they’re visible to others (similar to Hawthorne Effect)