Sociology Chapter 2 Study

Language
The organization of written or spoken symbols into a standardized system.

Values
Shared beliefs about what is good or bad, right or wrong, desirable or undesirable.

Subculture
A group that shares values, norms, and behaviors that are it shared by the entire population.

Culture
A shared, learned, way of life.

Society
A group of interdependent people who have organized in such a way as to share a common culture and feeling of unity.

Norms
The shared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in certain situations.

Folkways
Norms that describe socially acceptable behavior but don’t have moral significance attached to them.

Mores
Norms that have great moral significance attached to them.

Cultural Universals
Certain features that are developed to ensure the fulfillment of some needs in society and are common to all cultures.

Cultural Reletivism
The belief that all cultures should be judged by their own standards rather than by applying the standards of another culture.

Material culture
Physical objects that people create and use

Ethnocentrism
Tendency to view one’s own culture as superior

Margaret Mead
The anthropologist that conducted a now-classic study of cultural variation in the 1930s

Folkways and mores
Sociologists distinguish between these two types of norms

Counterculture
Some groups in society share values, norms, and behaviors that are not shared by the entire population. The unique cultural characteristics of these groups form a _______________?

nacirema
In the 1950s anthropologist Horace Minor examined some of the rituals of which culture group?

Arapesh and Mundugamor
A study of which two groups provided examples of how different value systems produce different cultures?

d
A norm that exists in our society is
a. Financial responsibility
b. restrictions against campfires
c. not paying bills
d. not killing a human being

a
Folkways include all of the following except:
a. Murder
b. not putting food in your mouth with a knife
c. shaking hands when you are introduced to someone
d. getting to class on time

Culture complex
The game of basketball is considered a ____________ _________.

Cultural Relativism
___________ helps sociologists and anthropologists understand practices that seem strange or different from those of their own culture.

A cluster of interrelated traits
What is a culture complex?

It’s common features in all human cultures
Why do cultural universals exist?

Laws
Written rules of conduct

New Guinea
Where did Margret Mead live in the 1930s to conduct her study of cultural variation?

The clash of cultures.
What is cultural discontinuity?

Experiences
Those who argue Sapir’s theory claim that language may NOT determine culture, but simply reflect the ______________ of the people using the language.

Marvin Harris
Who is the author of Cannibals and Kings?

Edwin Sutherland
Criminologist ________________ developed the concept of subcultures.

Chicago School of Sociology
According to what school of sociology is it important to look at the make-up of society and study the role played by each part.

Emile Durkheim, Anomie
Who argued that when members of society fail to fulfill their function, a breakdown will occur? What did he call this breakdown?

Interdependent
Structural functionalists believe that the various occupations in society are __________ of each other.

Social psychologists
What group of social scientists besides sociologists, would claim to use symbolic interaction to study group behavior?

Sender, Reciever
In order to understand the meanings of symbols, both the ____________ and the __________ must understand the meanings of those symbols.

Symbolic Interaction
The modern theory that would explain the rising divorce rate in the U.S. based on the fact that divorce no longer carries the stigma that it once did is:

Structural functionalism
The modern theory that would explain the rising divorce rate in the U.S. based on the fact that the family no longer seems needed for such activities as “child rearing, medical treatment, or socialization” is:

Comte
Harriet Martineau is most remembered for translating the works of what sociologist?

Culturally, biologically
Man differs from man in that man changes both ____________ and _____________, while animals only seem to change biographically.

Archeologist
Scientists that study ancient cultures are called ______________.

Ethnologist
Scientists that study living cultures are called ________________.

Culture traits
What are the smallest element of culture?

The existence of many cultures within a society
What is cultural diversity?

George Murdock
Who examined hundreds of cultures to help determine what general traits all cultures have?

Culture shock
What is the feeling of disorientation caused by contact with a culture in which our assumptions don’t work.

William Sumner
Who developed the term ethnocentrism?

Ray Croc
Who turned Mcdonnald’s into a franchise?

George Ritzer
Who did the Mcdonaldalization study?

Mcdonaldization
Efficiency, Calculability, Uniformity and predictability, control through automation are the four characteristics of what?

Cultural unity
What is a pro about ethnocentrism?

Idioms
What are words/phrases that are the same from one culture to another but with different meanings?

Amondawa
Who is the group out of Britain that don’t have a sense of time?

Quebecois
Who are the french people who live in Canada?

American Black Language
What is Ebonics?

illiteracy
What is a problem with Ebonics?

Instinctive and Arbituary Communication
What are the two linguistic relativities?

Temperent
How we respond to our environment

Cultural Items
Tangible traits are also called:

Culture complex
A set of interrelated traits

Culture pattern
A bunch of cultural complexes

Robert Edgerton
Who wrote sick societies?

Robert LaFollete
Who was the Wisconsin governor that introduced the Wisconsin idea?

Culture
What is considered to be the social heritage of humans?

Symbols
In order to create and transmit culture we must create and use ___________.

Amodowa
What tribe from Brazil has no sense of time?

Learned
Arbituary communication has to be ____________.

Proxemics
Social, spacial relations

Chambri
What is the tribe where the women are aggressive and he men are not?

Hammurabi’s code
first written set of laws

Deism
God made all principles, but then he just lets things operate under natural laws

Auguste comte
Who is credited with using the scientific method

positivism
Using the scientific method to study social problems.

social statics
social stability =

social dynamics
social change =

Cerebral Hygiene
What is the act of not listening to others ideas or theories; blocking them out to focus on your own work?

Herbert Spencer
Who opposed social legislation?

Karl Marx
Who did not see himself as a sociologist?

Karl Marx
Who agreed with Comte that people should take active steps to bring about social reform?

Karl Marx
Who coined the terms bourgeoise and proletariat?

Bourgeoise
The haves

Proletariat
The have nots

Revolution
Karl marx believed that only _______________ would bring about reform.

Government, Religion
_____________ and ____________ is a tool of the bourgeoise.

Emile Durkheim
Who believed that society needed to be recognized?

Emile Durkheim
Who said that too much individualism was anime?

Emile Durkheim
Who said that once anomie was recognized, sociologists needed to intervene?

Max Weber
Who claimed that religion is what brought about capitalism?

Max Weber
Who coined the term verstehen?

Verstehen
Means “to understand”

Structural functionalism
What looks at the make up of society?

functions
things that we are supposed to; positive

Manifest
What type of function is the positive intended?

latent
What type of function is the positive unintended?

dysfunction
things we are not supposed to do

symbolic interaction
What focuses on daily communication/ interaction?

symbols
meaning not fixed by nature

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