Sociology Chapter 18 (Collective Action)

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Collective action
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Action that takes place in groups and diverges from the social norms of the situation
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Convergence theory
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-Theory of collective action stating that collective action happens when people with similar ideas and tendencies gather int he same place -Setting doesn’t’ matter -Main problem with the theory is that it is often reduced to the sum of its parts
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Contagion theory
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-Claims that collective action arises because of people’s tendency to conform to the behavior of others with whom they are in close contact -Actions are contagious, especially under the influence of a charismatic leader -Doesn’t explain inconsistency -Doesn’t explain why some are more conducive to collective action than others
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Emergent Norm theory
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-keynoters promoting new behavioral norms -Doesn’t explain why particular people emerge as leaders
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Value added Theory
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Neil Smelser 1. Must be a social strain present that existing holders are unable or unwilling to alleviate 2. Folks must be able to agree on a definition of the problem 3. Folks must be free to at on their grievance 4. Must be a spark that ignites controversy 5. Mobilization 6. Failure of social control by established power holders
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Alternative social movements
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Social movements that seek the most limited societal change and often target a narrow group of people; MADD
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Redemptive social movements
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Social movements that target a specific group but advocate for more radical change in behavior; The covenant house
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Reformative social movements
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Social movements that advocate for limited social change across an entire society; safe biking
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Revolutionary social movements
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Social movements that advocate the radical reorganization of society; tea party movements
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Classical model
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Model of social movements based on a concept of structural weakness in society that results in the psychological disruption of individuals, for example, social isolation, status inconsistency -But how do we know what magnitude and type of strain will rise to a movement?
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Resources mobilization theory
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Emphasizes political context and goals but also states that social movements are unlikely to emerge without the necessary recourses -HOWEVER there are many movements that have arisen without many resources
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Political process model
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Model of social movements that focuses on the structure of political opportunities
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Emergence
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The first stage of a social movement, occurring when the social problem being addressed is first identified, people expend a great effort merely to draw attention to a particular social issue that is otherwise not in the public consciousness
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Coalescence
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The second stage of social movement, in which resources are mobilized around problems outlined int he first stage
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Routinization
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A formal structure develops to promote the cause
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Social movement organization
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A group developed to recruit new members and coordinate participation in a particular social movement; these groups also often raise money, clarify goals, and structure participation in the movement
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Professional movement organization
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Full time staff, large membership base that plays a minor role in the organization
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participatory movement organization
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The rank and file membership is directly involved -Mass protest and grassroots
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Mass protest
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Advocates for social change through organizations
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Grassroots organization
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Relies on high levels of community based membership participation to promote social change, lacks hierarchical structure of a professional movement organization, and has to work through existing political structures to promote social change, unlike a mass protest organization -Often develop around specific projects in specific places
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Tocqueville
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America is a land of joiners
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Premodernity
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Social relations characterized by concentric circles of social affiliation, low degree of division of labor, relatively undeveloped technology, and traditional social norms -Individuals were the source of authoritative knowledge
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Modernity
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Social relations characterized by rationality, bureaucratization, and objectivity – as well as individuality created by non-concentric, but overlapping, group affiliations -Destruction of Pruitt Igoe houses the end of the modern period for some -Weber stated that modernity emerged from the Protestant reformation -Simmel believed that modernity is characterized by he birth of the individual through a web of group affiliations
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Postmodernity
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Social relations characterized by a questioning of the notion of progress and history, the replacement of narrative with pastiche, and multiple, perhaps even conflicting, identities resulting from disjointed affiliation -A reaction against the modern period -Embodied by taking a bit from each culture to form a collage
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Crowd collective action
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needs to be face to face

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