Sociology C3 Essay

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negative sanction
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punishment or the threat of punishment used to enforce conformity
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narcissism
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extreme self-centeredness
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discovery
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recognition of new uses for existing elements or a new understanding of these elements
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positive sanction
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sanction in form of award
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formal sanction
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imprisonment, fines, pay raises, and awards
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self fulfillment
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significant new value that has emerged in the united states
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social control
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enforcing of norms through either sanctions or internalization
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Robin Williams
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person who outlined a set of values central to the American way of life
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informal sanction
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spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval
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Christopher Lasch
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social scientist who wrote The Culture of Narcissism
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invention
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using existing knowledge to create something that did not previously exist
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social movement
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long-term conscious effort to promote or prevent social change
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technology
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knowledge of tools people use to manipulate their environment for practical purposes
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internalization
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process by which a norm becomes part of one’s personality
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assimilation
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blending of culturally distinct groups into a single group with a common culture and identity
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ethnocentrism
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ressisting social change because it comes from outside one’s group
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ideology
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system of beliefs or ideas that justifies some social, moral, religious, politcal, or economic interests held by a group or by society
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sanctions
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rewards or punishments used to enforce conformity
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cultural lag
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results because some aspects of society change less rapidly than other aspects
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physical environment
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source of social change involving such events as tornadoes, earth quakes, or floods
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Culture
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knowledge, values, customs, and physical objects that are shared by society
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Society
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a group of people who live in a defined territory
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symbols
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an object that stands for something else
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sanctions
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rewards and punishments used to encourage people to follow norms
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formal sanctions
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sanctions that applied by designated individuals
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informal sanctions
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reward or punishment that can be applied by almost anyone
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values
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ideas that most people find desirable within a group
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ethnocentrism
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belief that your culture is superior to others
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Democracy
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Best form of government in the world.
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humanitarianism
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Helping those who are less fortunate
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efficiency
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American value that means the ability to get things done.
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discovery
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Recognition of new uses for existing elements in the world or a new understanding of these elements.
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morality
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American value that means meaning the world viewed in terms of right and wrong
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Wars and Conquest
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Source of social change that brings the greatest and quickest change.
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invention
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using existing knowledge to create something that did not previously exist.
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positive
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type of sanctions that include praise and cheers.
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narcissism
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extreme self-centeredness
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Williams
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last name of sociologists who came up with the Traditional American values.
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internalization
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process in which a norm becomes a part of an individual’s personality.
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diffusion
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The spread of ideas, inventions, or patterns of behavior to different societies
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social movement
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A long-term conscious effort to promote or prevent change such as the civil rights movement

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