Sociology 201 Exam One

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A sociologist observing behavior at a college football game would probably focus on: A) The coach’s demeanor on the sideline B) A fan who has fallen asleep during the game’s fourth quarter C) The interaction among fans during the pre-game ritual of tailgate parties D) The cleanliness of the restroom facilities in the stadium
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C) The interaction among fans during the pre-game ritual of tailgate parties
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Unemployment can be viewed as A) A private troubles. B) A Public issue. C) Neither a public or private issue D) Both a public and a private issue
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D) Both a public and a private issue
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What was Durkheim particularly concerned with?
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The loss of social order
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What did Karl Marx view as the key factor distinguishing humans from animals?
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Humans’ ability to transform raw material into finished products.
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Erving Goffman popularized the dramaturgical approach, which ________
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compares everyday life to a theatrical performance.
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W. E. B. Du Bois investigated power and inequality based on _____
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Race
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Ida Wells-Barnett investigated power and inequality based on _______ ___ ______
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Gender and Race
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Which sociological perspective would argue that public punishments reinforce the social order?
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Functionalist Perspective
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Which sociological perspective would argue that social change is predictable in its progression toward greater order?
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Functionalist Perspective
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The view that social order is maintained through cooperation and consensus would most likely be held by
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A functionalist
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Which sociological perspective would suggest that social change is reflected in people’s communication patterns and social positions?
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interactionist perspective
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Using sociology with the specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations is referred to as _______ _________
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Applied Sociology
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True or False: Given C. Wright Mills’ description of the sociological imagination as our ability to see the interaction between history and biography, it follows that neither society nor the individual can be understood in isolation from the other.
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True
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True or False: The main purpose of the \”hamburger as miracle\” story is to show that, when the need arises, all individuals are capable of achieving their goals without the help of others
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False
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True or False: The observation by sociologists that the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami killed a higher proportion of men than women is an example of the importance of the consequences of difference.
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True
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True or False: Sociology can most accurately be considered a natural science because it involves the systematic examination of the effects of human nature on society.
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False
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True or False: The fact that sociologists have found little difference between the sexes in terms of talkativeness is an example of why the systematic analysis of facts is generally more reliable than common sense knowledge.
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True
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True or False: According to Durkheim’s theory about the causes of suicide, the more interconnected and interdependent a society’s members, the lower its suicide rate should be.
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True
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True or False: Of the three main sociological perspectives, the dramaturgical approach, as popularized by Erving Goffman, would best be considered an example of the interactionist perspective.
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True
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True or False: A sociologist who views religion as a societal institution that functions to preserve existing inequalities is most likely to be a conflict theorist in terms of perspective.
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True
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True or False: Of the various ways to practice sociology, the way that offers the most direct link between theory and practice is clinical sociology.
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True
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The primary relationships studied by sociologists are the ones between
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Individuals and society
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What is sociological imagination?
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It is an awareness of the relationship between individuals and social forces.
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One way to develop a sociological imagination is to view your own society ______
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As an outsider
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What is Sociological imagination?
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Our recognition of the interdependent relationship between who we are as individuals and the social forces that shape our lives
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What is the functionalist perspective?
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An approach that emphasizes the way in which the parts of society are structures to maintain its stability. • Macro level • People are socialized to perform functions • Everyone is a part in the big picture to help function • Ex. Public punishment reinforce the social order
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What is clinical sociology?
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The use of discipline of sociology with the specific intent of altering organizations or constructing social institutions
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What is applied sociology?
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The use of discipline of sociology with the specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations
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What is a theory?
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In sociology it is a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behaviors
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Why did Durkheim think people committed suicide?
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He believed that people commit suicide because they lack the social connections and obligations to prevent them from taking their own life
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What is social science?
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The study of the social features of humans and the ways in which they interact and change
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What is agency?
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The freedom that individuals have to choose and to act
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What is macrosociology?
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Sociological investigation that concentrates on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations • Looks at society as a whole
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What is science?
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The body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observations
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What are private troubles?
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Problems we face in our immediate relationships with particular individuals in our personal lives
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What is natural science?
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The study of the physical features of nature and the ways in which they interact and change
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What did Wells-Barnett and Addams accomplish?
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They were able to prevent racial segregation in Chicago public schools
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What is anomie?
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The loss of direction felt in a society when social control of an individual behavior has become ineffective • Term created by Emile Durkheim
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What is globalization?
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The world wide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and finical markets through trade and the exchange of ideas
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What is the Thomas theorem?
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It says that how we see the world shapes what we do
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What is the interactionalist perspective?
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Generalizes about the everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole • Micro level • Ex. People respect laws or disobey them based on their own past experiences • Mead, Cooley, Goffman
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What is personal sociology?
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Recognizing the impact that our individual position has on who we are, and how we think and act
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What is the conflict perspective?
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It focuses on power and the allocation of valued resources in society • Macro level • People are shaped by power • Ex. Laws enforce the positions of those in power • Marx, Du Bois, Wells-Barnett
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What are public issues?
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Problems that we face as a consequence of the positions we occupy within the larger social structure
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What is microsociology?
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Sociological investigation that stresses the study of small groups and the analysis of our everyday experiences and interactions • Focused on the smaller groups in a society
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What is social inequality?
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A condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige, or power
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True or False: Society consists of persistent patterns of relationships and social networks within which we operate.
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True
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True or False: Karl Marx recommended studying everyday interactions as we are all actors on a stage seeking to successfully put on a performance and called it the dramaturgical approach.
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False, it was Erving Goffman who recommended this approach
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According to C. Wright Mills, the sociological imagination focuses on the intersection between A) Natural science and social science B) Power and access to resources C) Theory and research D) History and biography
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D) History and biography
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The career path with the specific intent of altering social relationships or restructuring organizations is known as A) Dramaturgical sociology B) Applied sociology C) Clinical sociology D) Academic sociology
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C) Clinical Sociology
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Karl Marx argued that in order to understand social order we must include analysis of A) Anomie B) Ownership of the means of production C) The sociological imagination D) Microsociology
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B) Ownership of the means of productions
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What perspective is this? Society represents a struggle over resources. Those who control valued resources have greater power to get their way.
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The conflict perspective
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Hawthorne Effect
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The unintended influence that observers of experiments can have on their subjects, even though later studies show the situation there was more complex
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What is casual logic?
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A relationship exists between variables in which change in one brings about change in the other
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What is the dependent variable?
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The variable in a casual relationship that is subject to the influence of another variable • The factor that is measured
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What is a variable?
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A measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions
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What are the steps for the scientific method?
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1) Define the problem 2) Review the literature 3) Formulate a testable hypothesis 4) Collect and analyze the data 5) Develop a conclusion
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What is the control group?
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The group that is not exposed to the independent variable in an experiment
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What is the scientific method?
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A systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem
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What is the independent variable?
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The variable that the scientist changes on purpose in an experiment
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What is operational definition?
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Transformation of an abstract concept into indicators that are observable and measurable • A clear description of what is being measured
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What is correlation?
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A relationship between two variables in which a change in one coincides with a change in the other
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What is a sample?
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A selection from a larger population that is statistically representative of that population
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What is a random sample?
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A sample for which every member of an entire population has an equal chance of being selected • Sociologists frequently use • Eliminates possibility of a bias
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What is an experiment?
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An artificially created situation that allows a researcher to manipulate variables • Sociologists don’t use as much because of ethics
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What is a pro to the experimental design?
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It yields direct measures of people’s behavior
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What is a con to the experimental design?
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It has ethical limitations
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What is a research design?
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A detailed plan or method for obtaining data scientifically
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What is qualitative research?
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Research that relies on what is seen in field or naturalistic settings more than on statistical data • Focuses more on smaller groups • More in-depth
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What is the control variable?
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A factor that is held constant to test the relative impact of an independent variable • Doesn’t change
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What is reliability?
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The extent to which a measure produces consistent results
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What is quantitative research?
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Research that collects and reports data primarily in numerical form
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What is validity?
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The degree to which a measure or scale truly reflects the phenomenon under study
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What is the experimental group?
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The group that is exposed to the independent variable
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What is a survey?
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A study, generally in the form of an interview or questionnaire, that provides researchers with information about how people think and act
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What is a pro to the survey design?
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It yields information about specific issues
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What is a con to the survey design?
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It can be expensive and time consuming
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What is secondary analysis?
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A variety of research techniques that make use of previously collected and publicly accessible information and data
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What is a pro to the secondary analysis design?
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It is cost efficient
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What is a con to the secondary analysis design?
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It is limited to other’s data
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What is ethnography?
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The study of an entire social setting through extended systematic observation • Form of qualitative research
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What is value neutrality?
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Max Weber’s term for objectivity of sociologists in the interpretation of data • No bias • Report no matter your own beliefs
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What is the code of ethics?
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The standards of acceptable behavior developed by and for members of a profession
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What is content analysis
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The systematic coding and objective recording of data, guided by a given rationale • Good for coding open-ended questions in a survey
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What is the mean?
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The average number • Add all the numbers and divide by total amount of numbers
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What is the median?
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The midpoint
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What is the mode?
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The most common number
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What does an effective survey question need to be?
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Simple and clear enough for people to understand
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What is observation?
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A research technique in which an investigator collects information through direct participation and/or by closely watching a group or community
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What is called when sociologist actually join the group for a period to get an accurate sense of how it operates?
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Participant observation
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True or False: Sociologists tend not to use experiments frequently because they are almost always invalid
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Fasle, they tend to not use them because they are typically more interested in understanding people’s natural responses, and there are ethical questions about doing so
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What is a pro to the observation design?
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It yields detailed information about specific groups or organizations
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What is a con to the observation design?
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It involves months if not years of labor-intensive data collection
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______ ________ recognized that personal values would influence the topic that sociologists select for research
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Max Weber
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Ethnography is an example of __________
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Observation
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In sociological and scientific research, a hypothesis A) is an educated guess B) is a testable statement about the relationship between two or more variables C) Insists that science can deal only with observable entities known directly to experience
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B) is a testable statement about the relationship between two or more variables
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If you were interested in studying the relationship between date and acquaintance rape victims and the characteristics of the rapist, your first step would be to A) Conduct interviews B) Define a problem to study C) Create a hypothesis D) Choose a research design
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B) Define a problem to study
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What is argot?
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A specialized language used by members of a group or subculture * Allows communication that outsiders can’t understand
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What is culture?
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Everything that humans create in establishing our relationships to nature and with each other • Facilitates social interaction • Enables us to work together
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True or False: We depend on culture to interpret sensations
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True
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What is counterculture?
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A subculture that deliberately opposed certain aspects of the larger culture
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What is culture shock?
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The feeling of disorientation, uncertainty, and even fear that people experience when they encounter unfamiliar cultural practices • Shows us both the power and the taken-for-granted nature of culture
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What is ethnocentrism?
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The tendency to assume one own’s culture and way of life represent whats normal or is superior to all others
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What is xenocentrism?
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The belief that the products, styles, or ideas of one’s society are inferior to those that originate elsewhere *Preferring other’s way of doing things
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What is culture relativism?
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The viewing of people’s behavior from the perspective of their own culture
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What is society?
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The structure of relationships within which culture is created and shared through regularized patterns of social interaction
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What are cultural universals?
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A common practice or belief that is shared by all societies • Can change dramatically over time
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What is a subculture?
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A segment of society that shares distinctive patterns of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the pattern of the larger society • A culture existing within a larger, more dominant culture
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What is sociobiology?
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The systematic study of how biology affects human social behavior
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What is innovation?
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The process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture • Can have a ripple effect across a society •Two main forms: Discovery & Invention
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What is a discovery?
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The process of making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality • Ex. The identification of the DNA molecule •Form of innovation
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What is an invention?
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The combination of existing cultural items into a form that did not exist before • Ex. Television, cars, bow and arrow • Form of innovation
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What is material culture?
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Our physical modification of the natural environment to suit our purposed • We often take them for granted • Ex. Clothes, books, lights, cars, etc.
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What is technology?
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A form of culture in which humans modify the natural environment to meet particular wants and needs • Ex. Cars, phones, spoons, chalk, etc.
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What is the most common term used to refer to material culture?
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Technology
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What is cognitive culture?
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Our mental and symbolic representation of reality • Includes values, beliefs, knowledge, etc.
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What is diffusion?
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The process by which a cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society • Often comes at a cost
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What is nematic culture?
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Consists of the way we establish, abide by, and enforce principles of conduct
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What are norms?
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The established standards of behavior maintained by society • Classified by their relative importance to society • Sometimes violated in some instances because one norm conflicts with another
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What are mores?
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Norms that are deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society • Often embody core values • Violation can lead to severe penalties
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What is a formal norm?
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A norm that generally has been written down and that specifies strict punishment for violators • Ex. Laws
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What is an informal norm?
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A norm that is generally understood by not precisely recorded • Ex. How to behave in class
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What is a sanction?
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A penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm • Purpose is to influence future behavior
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What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?
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The idea that the language a person uses shapes his or her perception of reality and therefore his or her thoughts and actions • Created by Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf • \”Language may color how we see the world\”
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What are folkways?
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Norms governing everyday behavior, whose violation raises comparatively little concern • General guidelines
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What is dominant ideology?
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A set of cultural beliefs and practices that legitimate existing powerful social, economic, and political interests •Helps to explain who gets what and why • Created by Georg Lucas and Antonio Gramsci
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True or False: Cultural innovation has little to none global consequences in today’s world
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False, it does have global consequences in today’s world
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People in ________ nations often pick and choose the cultural practices they find intriguing or exotic, whereas people in ______ nations often lose their traditional values and begin to identify with the culture of dominant nations
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Developed, Developing
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What is cultural lag?
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A period of adjustment when the nonmaterial culture is struggling to adapt to new conditions of the material culture
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What is language?
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A system of shared symbols; it includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions
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True or False: What matters most is our shared perception rather than the actual sound or image we use
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True
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True or False: Language is fundamentally social in nature
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True
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Because language is ______ _________, it allows change
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Socially constructed
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What was Esperanto?
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The most successful universal language • One of many attempts • Created by Ludwik Zamenhof in 1887
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Language can also transmit stereotypes related to ______
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Race • Ex. Black = dismal, gloomy, evil, etc.
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What is nonverbal communication?
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The use of gestures, facial expressions, and other visual images to communicate • Not the same in all cultures
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What are values?
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A collective conception of what is considered good, desirable, and improper-in a culture
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________ consists of everything humans create in establishing our relationships to nature and with each other
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Culture
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What types of norms is deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society, often bookcase these norms embody the most cherished principles of a people? A) Formal norms B) Informal norms C) Mores D) Folkways
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C) Mores
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Terrorist groups are examples of A) Cultural universals B) Subcultures C) Countercultures D) Dominant ideologies
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C) Countercultures
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What is face-work?
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The efforts people make to maintain a proper image and avoid public embarrassment • Term created by Erving Goffman • Ex. \”This place is full of losers, I’m out of here\”
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What is the game stage?
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The stage when children learn to more fully appreciate that they are involved in interconnected and interdependent relationships, around ages six to nine • Created by George Herbert Mead • Generalized other
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What is the preparatory stage?
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The stage when children imitate the people around them, lasts until about age three • Created by George Herbert Mead • Symbols
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What is generalized other?
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The attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account in his or her behavior • Term created by George Herbert Mead
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What is one’s I?
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The acting self that exists in relation to the me • Concept created by George Herbert Mead • One of two components to the self
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What is one’s me?
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The socialized self that plans actions and judges performances based on that standards we have learned from others • Concept created by George Herbert Mead • One of two components to the self
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What is the life course approach?
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Looks closely at the social factors, including gender and income, that influence people through their lives, from birth to death
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What is anticipatory socialization?
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The process of socialization in which a person \”rehearses\” for future positions, occupations, and social relationships
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What gerontology?
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The study of the sociological and psychological aspects of aging and the problems of tiger aged
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What is the disengagement theory?
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A theory of aging that suggests that society and the aging individual mutually sever man of their relationships • Theory created by Elaine Cumming and William Henry
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What is socialization?
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The lifelong process through which people learn the attitude, values, and behaviors appropriate for member of a particular culture • Major role in shaping who we are • Important at a young age
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What is the self?
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Our sense of who we are, distinct from others and shaped by the unique combination of our social interactions
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What is the looking-glass self?
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A Theory that we become who we are based on how we think others see us • Concept created by Charles Horton Cooley • Not on how others see us but how WE THINK they see us
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What is role taking?
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The process of mentally assuming the perspective of another and responding from that imagined viewpoint • Concept created by George Herbert Mead • Critical for self-development
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What is the play stage?
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The stage when children are beginning to pretend to be other people, happens around ages three through five • Created by George Herbert Mead • Role taking
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What is the dramaturgical approach?
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Studies interactions as if we are all actors on a stage seeking to put on a successful performance • Concept created by Erving Goffman • Audience judges how well we did
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What is impression management?
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The altering of the presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences • Concept created by Erving Goffman • We learn this early in life
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What is the cognitive theory of development?
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The theory that children’s thoughts progress through four stages of development • Concept created by Jean Piaget
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What are gender roles?
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Expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females
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What is rasocilaization?
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The process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new one’s as part of transition in one’s life
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What is a total institution?
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An institution that regulates all aspects of a person’s life under a single authority, such as a prison, the military, a mental hospital, or a convent • People will often loose their individuality in a total institution
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What is a degradation ceremony?
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An aspect of socialization process within some total institutions, in which people are subjected to humiliating rituals • Becomes secondary or invisible
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What is the sandwich generation?
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The generation of adults who simultaneously try to meet the competing needs of their parents and their children
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What is the activity theory?
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A theory of aging that suggests that those elderly people who remain active and socially involved will have an improved quality of life
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What is a midlife crisis?
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A stressful period of self-evaluation that begins around the age of 40
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True or False: The long-term consequences of extreme isolation can be substantial
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True
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What is a significant other?
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An individual who is most important in the development of the self, such as a parent, friend, or teacher
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What is a symbol?
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A gesture, object, or word that forms the basis of human communication
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What are the three stages in the process of self-development?
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1) Preparatory stage 2) Play stage 3) Game stage
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True or False: Our peers are our most important agent of socialization
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False, our family is
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In the context of families, we learn to ______ ________ that we take for granted as natural but that we learned thanks to our families
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Basic skills
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We are spending more and more time interacting with _______________, which has an inevitable impact on our interactions with each other
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Technology
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In the United States, working _____-_______ confirms adult status; it indicates that one has passed out of adolescence
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Full-time
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True or False: Occupational socialization can be most intense during the transition from school to school, but it continues throughout one’s work history
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False, it is most intense during the transition from school to job
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What is a rite of passage?
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A ritual marking the symbolic transition from one social position to another
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Which is a common trait of a total institution? A) All aspects of life are conducted in the same place under the control of a single authority B) Any activities within the institution are conducted in the company of others in the same circumstances-for example, army recruits or movies in a convent C) The authorities devise rules and schedule activities without consulting the participants D) All aspects of life are designed to fulfill the purpose of the organization E) All of the above
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E) All of the above
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True or False: Retirement is an easy single transition
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False, it is a series of adjustments that varies from one person to another
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What is ageism?
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A prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s age
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What is hospice care?
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A treatment for the terminally ill in their own houses, orin special hospital units or other facilities, with the goal of helping them die comfortably, without pain
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The nurture side of the nature-nurture debate argues that A) Socialization plas a critical role in shaping our attitudes, values, and behaviors B) Our attitudes, values and behavior are largely inherited biologically through our DNA C) Sociology has a limited role in explain our behaviors before the age of two D) We cannot determine the degree to which our behaviors are shaped by heredity of environment
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A) Socialization plas a critical role in shaping our attitudes, values, and behaviors
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Suppose a clerk tries to appear busier than he or she actually is when a supervisor happens to be watching. Erving Goffman would say this is a form of what? A) Degradation ceremony B) Impression management C) Resocialization D) Looking-glass self
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B) Impression management
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According to Edward Hall what is an intimate distance?
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18 inches apart • Making love, protecting someone, confrontation
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According to Edward Hall what is a personal distance?
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18 inches to 4 feet apart • Friends and acquaintances
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According to Edward Hall what is a social distance?
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4 to 7 feet apart • Impersonal business
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According to Edward Hall what is a public distance?
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12 feet or more apart • Public occasions, such as speaking to an audience
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What are some agents of socialization?
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• Family • Peer Group • School • Mass media and technology • Workplace • The state •Religion
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Harlow
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Monkey Experiment
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What is Cooley’s process of self-delvelopment?
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1) We imagine how others see us 2) We imagine how others evaluate what we think they see 3) We define ourself as a result of these assumptions • This process is ongoing
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True or False: Schools teach children the values and customs of the larger society
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True
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How many people are in a focus group?
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On average about 6 – 10 people
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True or False: Focus groups are usually used in evaluation research
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True
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What is triangulation?
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Using multiple sources, methods, or data to ensure information is accurate
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What did the 1979 Belmont report say?
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1) Respect for persons (Respect, informed consent) 2) Beneficence (Benefits vs. Risks) 3) Justice (non-exploative)
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True or False: Sociology helps to show us our place in the world in new ways
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True
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Who was DuBois?
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The first African American to earn their PhD from Harvard
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What was DuBois’s theory?
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Anomie and how breakdown of norms resulting from the sudden freedom of former slaves in the south led to high crime rates among blacks
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What was DuBois’s concept?
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Double Consciousness
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What concept is this an example of: Black shoppers have to think more about how they are acting in stores than other races may because of racial profiling toward them
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Double Consciousness
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What is the difference between a theory and a hypothesis?
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A theory has been tested to be true
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What is one word to describe perspective?
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Focus
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What is one word to describe theory?
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Explanation
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What is one word to describe hypothesis?
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Statements
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What did Emile Durkheim focus on?
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Suicide
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What did Durkheim find with married vs. single suicide rates?
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You were more likely to commit suicide if you were single
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What did Durkheim find with catholic vs. protestant suicide rates?
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You were more likely to commit suicide if you were protestant
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What was Durkheim’s perspective?
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Functionalist
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What was Durkheim’s hypothesis?
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Suicide varies inversely with the degree of integration of the social groups of which the individual forms a part
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Who established Europe’s first university department of sociology?
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Emile Durkheim
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True or False: Commonsense is always reliable
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False, commonsense in not reliable
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What are manifest functions?
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Intended consequences
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What are latent functions?
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Unintended consequences • Less visible • An unknown \”goal\”
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Which perspective looks at the tension between various groups?
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The conflict perspective
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What are dysfunctions?
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Negative intended or unintended consequences that undermine the function
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True or False: Feminist sociologists view work and family as interrelated topics.
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True
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\”Poor farmers and wealthy farmers are equally supportive of GMOs\” is an example of what?
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A hypothesis
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\”Farming is a occupation ripe with uncertainty and risk; Farmers are used to taking on some level of risk routinely. Short term promises of higher yields have difficulty competing with potential long term disadvantages, regardless of socio-economic status\” is an example of what?
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A theory
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\”Functionalist perspective would emphasize the extent to which this serves farmers\” is an example of what?
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An approach
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The relative importance of biological inheritance and environmental factors in human development is referred to as the debate over A) Nature vs. Nurture B) Ability vs. Status C) Manifest functions vs. Latent functions
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A) Nature vs. Nurture
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Which of the following best describes the process of socialization? A) Mentally assuming the perspective of another B) Discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one’s life C) Learning the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture D) Striving to impose a dominant culture on a subordinated group
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C) Learning the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture
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A teacher plans a trip to the theater for a junior high school class. As part of the preparation, the teacher tells students how they should dress and how they will be expected to act inside the theater. This is an example of A) Socialization B) The dramaturgical approach C) Social promotion D) Social relativism
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A) Socialization
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The analysis of Genie and Danielle is important because it emphasizes the importance of ____________
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The earliest socialization experiences in human development
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Harry Harlow’s research with rhesus monkeys and \”artificial mothers\” revealed that __________
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Monkeys developed greater social attachments based on their need for intimacy than on their need for food
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Studies of identical twins who were raised apart have A) Shown few similarities between the twins B) Shown few differences between the twins C) Failed to conclusively decided the debate over the influences of nature and nurture D) Conclusively decided the debate over the influences of nature and nurture
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C) Failed to conclusively decided the debate over the influences of nature and nurture
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Which of the following is true about the self? A) It is a distinct identity that sets us apart from others B) It is a static entity developed in early childhood C) It is a person’s typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics, and behavior
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A) It is a distinct identity that sets us apart from others
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What are the phases of the looking-glass self?
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1) We imagine how others see us 2) We imagine how others evaluate what we think they see 3) We define ourself as a result of these assumptions
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For George Herbert Mead, the self represents an ongoing interaction between A) Our socialized self and our isolated self B) Our acting self and our playing self C) Our socialized self and our acting self D) Our socialized self and our imaginary self
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D) Our socialized self and our acting self
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For a student sitting in a classroom, the \”I\” is the part of the self that engenders which of these reactions? A) Speaking up during a class discussion B) Fearing embarrassment as a result of making an incorrect statement C) Regretting staying silent when someone else vocalizes the student’s correct thought D) All of the above
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A) Speaking up during a class discussion
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According to George Herbert Mead’s stages of the self, the preparatory stage occurs A) When children imitate the people around them, particularly family members B) When children become able to pretend to be other people C) When children grasp not only their own social positions but also those of others around them
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A) When children imitate the people around them, particularly family members
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Which of the following is an example of a symbol? A) A hug B) A piece of cake C) A bottle of coke D) All of the above
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D) All of the above
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Your boss has just screamed at her staff for poor sales growth and high absenteeism. Consequently, you decide that this would not be a good time to speak to her about a promotion. In this instance, you are effectively A) Demonstrating role taking B) Playing the part of a significant other C) Playing the part of a generalized other D) Completing the preparatory stage of Mead’s theory
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A) Demonstrating role taking
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Which term was used by George Herbert Mead to refer to a child’s awareness of the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole? A) Generalized other B) Significant other C) Impression management D) Symbolic other
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A) Generalized other
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Tanya is sitting in a large college lecture hall with 300 other students. Although she has the urge to pick her nose, she refrains because she is afraid of how the other members of the audience will react. Tanya’s behavior is being controlled by ________ _________
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Generalized other
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Bob is on his first date with Mary. He really likes her, so he tries to act in a manner that will cause her to like him, too. This is an example of A) Face-work B) Impression management C) Idealization of the other D) Role Taking
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B) Impression management
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A person leaves a singles’ bar alone and later tells a friend, \”There wasn’t anyone interesting in the entire crowd.\” This is an example of ____ _______
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Face-work
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Which social scientist believed that the self has components that work in opposition to each other?
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Sigmund Freud
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According to Piaget, what is the key to children’s development?
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Social interaction
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Socialization concerning not only masculinity and femininity, but also marriage and parenthood begins in childhood as a part of family life. Children observe their parents as they express affection, deal with finances, quarrel, complain about in-laws, and so forth. Their learning represents an informal process of ___________ _________
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Anticipatory socialization
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Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis observed that schools in the United States focus on….
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Socializing students for the workplace
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Which of the following was a finding of sociologists Patricia and Peter Adler regarding peer groups? A) Popularity reinforces gender stereotypes B) A social pecking order is established early C) Popularity is affected by attractiveness D) All of the above are correct
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D) All of the above are correct
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Which of the following has become an increasingly influential agent of socialization over the past century? A) Family B) The media C) Region D) All of the above are correct
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B) The media
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Which is the most common form of media consumption for young people between the ages of 8 and 18?
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Watching television
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Which of the following would be an example of the use of the sociological imagination? A) A study of an individual’s sleeping patterns B) An analysis of the content of dreams and how the individual’s daily life is reflected in subconscious thought C) A study of the behavior of people listening to a religious service compared to that of people listening to a rock concert D) An analysis of the United States president’s power to declare war
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C) A study of the behavior of people listening to a religious service compared to that of people listening to a rock concert
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Which of the following is true about August Comte? A) He sought to establish a science that would reveal the basic \”laws of society.\” B) He thought humans could learn to understand the forces that helped society to maintain order and stability. C) He thought humans could learn to understand the forces that caused society to change. D) All of the answers are correct
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D) All of the answers are correct
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Which of the following is true about Harriet Martineau? A) She introduced the significance of inequality and power into the discipline of sociology B) She believed scholars should be activists and not just commentators C) Both of the answers are correct D) Neither of the answers are correct
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C) Both of the answers are correct
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Harriet Martineau argued that we could learn a lot about a culture by analyzing the ideas, themes, and images reflected in which type of cultural product?
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Popular songs
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In many emerging nations, the pace of social change is very rapid and there is significant hunger and starvation, unemployment, and family disruption. Individuals who live in emerging nations are likely to suffer _______
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Anomie
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Durkheim was particularly concerned about….
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The lost of social order
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In Karl Marx’s analysis, social inequality is determined by…..
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Ownership, or lack thereof, of key material resources
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Max Weber’s theory of power included A) Social status and educational availability B) Natural resources and the right to rule C) Displacement and material resources D) Social status and organizational resources
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D) Social status and organizational resources

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